var nc = 207, fc = new Array(nc); fc[0] = {t:"Accent",d:"(synonym "stress"): a term of rhythm. The special force devoted to the voicing of one syllable in a word over others. In the noun "accent," for example, the accent, or stress, is on the first syllable."}; fc[1] = {t:"Act",d:"The major subdivision of a play, usually divided into scenes."}; fc[2] = {t:"Aesthetics",d:"(from Greek, "to feel, apprehend by the senses"): the philosophy of artistic meaning as a distinct mode of apprehending untranslatable truth, defined as an alternative to rational enquiry, which is purely abstract. Developed in the late eighteenth century by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant especially."}; fc[3] = {t:"Alexandrine",d:"A term of meter. In French verse a line of twelve syllables, and, by analogy, in English verse a line of six stresses."}; fc[4] = {t:"Allegory",d:"(Greek "saying otherwise"): saying one thing (the "vehicle" of the allegory) and meaning another (the allegory's "tenor"). Allegories may be momentary aspects of a work, as in metaphor ("John is a lion"), or, through extended metaphor, may constitute the basis of narrative, as in Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress: this second meaning is the dominant one."}; fc[5] = {t:"Alliteration",d:"(from Latin "litera," alphabetic letter): a figure of speech. The repetition of an initial consonant sound or consonant cluster in consecutive or closely positioned words. This pattern is often an inseparable part of the meter in Germanic languages, where the tonic, or accented syllable, is usually the first syllable. Thus all Old English poetry and some varieties of Middle English poetry use alliteration as part of their basic metrical practice. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, line 1: "Sithen the sege and the assaut was sesed at Troye". Otherwise used for local effects; Stevie Smith, "Pretty," lines 4-5: "And in the pretty pool the pike stalks / He stalks his prey . . .""}; fc[6] = {t:"Allusion",d:"Literary allusion is a passing but illuminating reference within a literary text to another, well-known text (often biblical or classical). Topical allusions are also, of course, common in certain modes, especially satire."}; fc[7] = {t:"Anagnorisis",d:"(Greek "recognition"): the moment of protagonist's recognition in a narrative, which is also often the moment of moral understanding."}; fc[8] = {t:"Anapest",d:"A term of rhythm. A three-syllable foot following the rhythmic pattern, in English verse, of two unstressed (uu) syllables followed by one stressed (/). Thus, for example, "Illinois.""}; fc[9] = {t:"Anaphora",d:"A figure of speech. The repetition of words or groups of words at the beginning of consecutive sentences, clauses, or phrases. Blake, "London," lines 5–8: "In every cry of every Man, / In every Infant's cry of fear, / In every voice, in every ban . . ." ; Louise Bennett, "Jamaica Oman," lines 17–20: "Some backa man a push, some side- a / Man a hole him han, / Some a lick sense eena him head, / Some a guide him pon him plan!""}; fc[10] = {t:"Animal fable",d:"A genre. A short narrative of speaking animals, followed by moralizing comment, written in a low style and gathered into a collection. Robert Henryson,"The Cock and the Fox." "}; fc[11] = {t:"Antithesis",d:"(Greek "placing against"): a figure of thought. The juxtaposition of opposed terms in clauses or sentences that are next to or near each other; Milton, Paradise Lost 1.777– 80: "They but now who seemed / In bigness to surpass Earth's giant sons / Now less than smallest dwarfs, in narrow room / Throng numberless.""}; fc[12] = {t:"Apostrophe",d:"(from Greek "turning away"): a figure of thought. An address, often to an absent person, a force, or a quality. For example, a poet makes an apostrophe to a Muse when invoking her for inspiration."}; fc[13] = {t:"Apposition",d:"A term of syntax. The repetition of elements serving an identical grammatical function in one sentence. The effect of this repetition is to arrest the flow of the sentence, but in doing so to add extra semantic nuance to repeated elements. This is an especially important feature of Old English poetic style. For example, Caedmon's Hymn , where the phrases "heaven-kingdom's Guardian," "the Measurer's might," "his mind-plans," and "the work of the Glory-Father" each serve an identical syntactic function as the direct objects of "praise.""}; fc[14] = {t:"Assonance",d:"(Latin "sounding to"): a figure of speech. The repetition of identical or near identical stressed vowel sounds in words whose final consonants differ, producing half- rhyme. Tennyson, "The Lady of Shalott," line 100: "His broad clear brow in sunlight glowed.""}; fc[15] = {t:"Aubade",d:"(originally from Spanish "alba," dawn): a genre. A lover's dawn song or lyric bewailing the arrival of the day and the necessary separation of the lovers; Donne, "The Sun Rising." Larkin recasts the genre in "Aubade.""}; fc[16] = {t:"Autobiography",d:"(Greek "self-life writing"): a genre. A narrative of a life written by the subject; Wordsworth, The Prelude. There are subgenres, such as the spiritual autobiography, narrating the author's path to conversion and subsequent spiritual trials, as in Bunyan's Grace Abounding."}; fc[17] = {t:"Ballad stanza",d:"A verse form. Usually a quatrain in alternating iambic tetrameter and iambic trimeter lines, rhyming abcb. "}; fc[18] = {t:"Ballade",d:"A verse form. A form consisting usually of three stanzas followed by afour-line envoi (French, "send off"). The last line of the first stanza establishes a refrain, which is repeated, or subtly varied, as the last line of each stanza. The form was derived from French medieval poetry; English poets, from the fourteenth to the sixteenth centuries especially, used it with varying stanza forms."}; fc[19] = {t:"Bathos",d:"(Greek "depth"): a figure of thought. A sudden and sometimes ridiculous descent of tone; Pope, The Rape of the Lock 3.157– 58: "Not louder shrieks to pitying heaven are cast, / When husbands, or when lapdogs breathe their last""}; fc[20] = {t:"Beast epic:",d:"A genre. A continuous, unmoralized narrative, in prose or verse, relating the victories of the wholly unscrupulous but brilliant strategist Reynard the Fox over all adversaries. Chaucer arouses, only to deflate, expectations of the genre in The Nun's Priest's Tale."}; fc[21] = {t:"Biography",d:"(Greek "life-writing"): a genre. A life as the subject of an extended narrative. Thus Izaak Walton, The Life of Dr. Donne."}; fc[22] = {t:"Blank verse",d:"A verse form. Unrhymed iambic pentameter lines. Blank verse has no stanzas, but is broken up into uneven units (verse paragraphs) determined by sense rather than form. First devised in English by Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, in his translation of two books of Virgil's Aeneid, this very flexible verse type became the standard form for dramatic poetry in the seventeenth century, as in most of Shakespeare's plays. Milton and Wordsworth, among many others, also used it to create an English equivalent to classical epic."}; fc[23] = {t:"Blazon",d:"strictly, a heraldic shield; in rhetorical usage, a topos whereby the individual elements of a beloved's face and body are singled out for hyperbolic admiration. "}; fc[24] = {t:"Burlesque",d:"(French and Italian "mocking"): a work that adopts the conventions of a genre with the aimless of comically mocking the genre than of satirically mocking the society so represented."}; fc[25] = {t:"Caesura",d:"(Latin "cut") (plural "caesurae"): a term of meter. A pause or breathing space within a line of verse, generally occurring between syntactic units; Louise Bennett, "Colonization in Reverse," lines 5–8: "By de hundred, by de tousan, / From country an from town, / By de ship- load, by de plane-load, / Jamaica is Englan boun.""}; fc[26] = {t:"Canon",d:"(Greek "rule"): the group of texts regarded as worthy of special respect or attention by a given institution. Also, the group of texts regarded as definitely having been written by a certain author."}; fc[27] = {t:"Catastrophe",d:"(Greek "overturning"): the decisive turn in tragedy by which the plot is resolved and, usually, the protagonist dies."}; fc[28] = {t:"Catharsis",d:"(Greek "cleansing"): According to Aristotle, the effect of tragedy on its audience, through their experience of pity and terror, was a kind of spiritual cleansing, or catharsis."}; fc[29] = {t:"Character",d:"(Greek "stamp, impression"): a person, personified animal, or other figure represented in a literary work, especially in narrative and drama. The more a character seems to generate the action of a narrative, and the less he or she seems merely to serve a preordained narrative pattern, the "fuller," or more "rounded," a character is said to be. A "stock" character, common particularly in many comic genres, will perform a predictable function in different works of a given genre."}; fc[30] = {t:"Chiasmus",d:"(Greek "crosswise"): a figure of speech. The inversion of an already established sequence. This can involve verbal echoes: Pope,"Eloisa to Abelard," line 104, "The crime was common, common be the pain;" or it can be purely a matter of syntactic inversion: Pope, Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot, line 8: "They pierce my thickets, through my grot they glide.""}; fc[31] = {t:"Classical",d:"classicism"}; fc[32] = {t:"Climax",d:"(Greek "ladder"): a moment of great intensity and structural change, especially in drama. Also a figure of speech whereby a sequence of verbally linked clauses is made, in which each successive clause is of greater consequence than its predecessor. Bacon, Of Studies: "Studies serve for pastimes, for ornaments, and for abilities. Their chief use for pastimes is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in judgement.""}; fc[33] = {t:"Comedy",d:"A genre. A term primarily applied to drama, and derived from ancient drama, in opposition to tragedy. Comedy deals with humorously confusing, sometimes ridiculous situations in which the ending is, nevertheless, happy. A comedy often ends in one or more marriages. "}; fc[34] = {t:"Comic mode",d:"Many genres (e.g., romance, fabliau, comedy) involve a happy ending in which justice is done, the ravages of time are arrested, and that which is lost is found. Such genres participate in a comic mode."}; fc[35] = {t:"Connotation",d:"To understand connotation, we need to understand denotation.While many words can denote the same concept—that is, have the same basic meaning—those words can evoke different associations, or connotations. Contrast, for example, the clinical-sounding term "depression" and the more colorful, musical, even poetic phrase "the blues.""}; fc[36] = {t:"Consonance",d:"(Latin "sounding with"): a figure of speech. The repetition of final consonants in words or stressed syllables whose vowel sounds are different. Herbert, "Easter," line 13: "Consort, both heart and lute....""}; fc[37] = {t:"Convention",d:"A repeatedly recurring feature (in either form or content) of works, occurring in combination with other recurring formal features, which constitutes a convention of a particular genre."}; fc[38] = {t:"Couplet",d:"A verse form. In English verse two consecutive, rhyming lines usually containing the same number of stresses. Chaucer first introduced the iambic pentameter couplet into English (Canterbury Tales); the form was later used in many types of writing, including drama; imitations and translations of classical epic (thus heroic couplet); essays; and satire. The distich (Greek "two lines") is a couplet usually making complete sense; Aemilia Lanyer, Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum, lines 5–6: "Read it fair queen, though it defective be, / Your excellence can grace both it and me.""}; fc[39] = {t:"Dactyl",d:"(Greek "finger," because of the finger's three joints): a term of rhythm. A three-syllable foot following the rhythmic pattern, in English verse, of one stressed followed by two unstressed syllables. Thus, for example, "Oregon.""}; fc[40] = {t:"Decorum",d:"(Latin "that which is fitting"): a rhetorical principle whereby each formal aspect of a work should be in keeping with its subject matter and/or audience."}; fc[41] = {t:"Deixis",d:"(Greek "pointing"): relevant to point of view. Every work has, implicitly or explicitly, a "here" and a "now" from which it is narrated. Words that refer to or imply this point from which the voice of the work is projected (such as "here," "there," "this," "that," "now," "then") are examples of deixis, or "deictics." This technique is especially important in drama, where it is used to create a sense of the events happening as the spectator witnesses them."}; fc[42] = {t:"Denotation",d:"A word has a basic, "prosaic" (factual) meaning prior to the associations it connotes. The word "steed," for example, might call to mind a horse fitted with battle gear, to be ridden by a warrior, but its denotation is simply "horse.""}; fc[43] = {t:"Denouement",d:"(French "unknotting"): the point at which a narrative can be resolved and so ended."}; fc[44] = {t:"Dialogue",d:"(Greek "conversation"): a genre. Dialogue is a feature of many genres, especially in both the novel and drama. As a genre itself, dialogue is used in philosophical traditions especially (most famously in Plato's Dialogues), as the representation of a conversation in which a philosophical question is pursued among various speakers."}; fc[45] = {t:"Diction",d:"Or "lexis" (from, respectively, Latin "dictio" and Greek "lexis," each meaning "word"): the actual words used in any utterance—speech, writing, and, for our purposes here, literary works. The choice of words contributes significantly to the style of a given work."}; fc[46] = {t:"Didactic mode",d:"(Greek "teaching mode"): Genres in a didactic mode are designed to instruct or teach, sometimes explicitly (e.g., sermons, philosophical discourses, georgic), and sometimes through the medium of fiction (le.g., animal fable, parable)."}; fc[47] = {t:"Diegesis",d:"(Greek for "narration"): a term that simply means "narration," but is used in literary criticism to distinguish one kind of story from another. In a mimetic story, the events are played out before us, whereas in diegesis someone recounts the story to us. Drama is for the most part mimetic, whereas the novel is for the most part diegetic. In novels the narrator is not, usually, part of the action of the narrative; s/he is therefore extradiegetic."}; fc[48] = {t:"Dimeter",d:"(Greek "two measure"): a term of meter. A two-stress line, rarely used as the meter of whole poems, though used with great frequency in single poems by Skelton, e.g., "The Tunning of Elinour Rumming." Otherwise used for single lines, as in Herbert, "Discipline," line 3: "O my God.""}; fc[49] = {t:"Discourse",d:"(Latin "running to and fro"): broadly, any nonfictional speech or writing; as a more specific genre, a philosophical meditation on a set theme."}; fc[50] = {t:"Dramatic irony",d:"A feature of narrative and drama, whereby the audience knows that the outcome of an action will be the opposite of that intended by a character."}; fc[51] = {t:"Dramatic monologue",d:"(Greek "single speaking"): a genre. A poem in which the voice of a historical or fictional character speaks, unmediated by any narrator, to an implied though silent audience."}; fc[52] = {t:"Ecphrasis",d:"(Greek "speaking out"): a topos whereby a work of visual art is represented in a literary work."}; fc[53] = {t:"Elegy",d:"In classical literature elegy was a form written in elegiac couplets (a hexameter followed by a pentameter) devoted to many possible topics. In Ovidian elegy a lover meditates on the trials of erotic desire. The sonnet sequences of both Sidney and Shakespeare exploit this genre, and, while it was still practiced in classical tradition by Donne, by the later seventeenth century the term came to denote the poetry of loss, especially through the death of a loved person."}; fc[54] = {t:"Emblem",d:"(Greek "an insertion"): a figure of thought. A picture allegorically expressing a moral, or a verbal picture open to such interpretation. Donne, "A Hymn to Christ," lines 1–2: "In what torn ship soever I embark, / That ship shall be my emblem of thy ark.""}; fc[55] = {t:"End-stopping",d:"The placement of a complete syntactic unit within a complete line,fulfilling the metrical pattern; Auden, "In Memory of W. B. Yeats," line 42: "Earth, receive an honoured guest.""}; fc[56] = {t:"Enjambment",d:"(French "striding," encroaching): The opposite of end-stopping, enjambment occurs when the syntactic unit does not end with the end of the line and the fulfillment of the metrical pattern. When the sense of the line overflows its meter and, therefore, the line break, we have enjambment; Auden, "In Memory of W. B. Yeats," lines 44– 45: "Let the Irish vessel lie / Emptied of its poetry.""}; fc[57] = {t:"Epic",d:"(synonym, heroic poetry): a genre. An extended narrative poem celebrating martial heroes, invoking divine inspiration, beginning in medias res, written in a high style (including the deployment of epic similes), and divided into long narrative sequences. Homer's Iliad and Virgil's Aeneid were the prime models for English writers of epic verse. With its precise repertoire of stylistic resources, epic lent itself easily to parodic and burlesque forms, known as mock epic."}; fc[58] = {t:"Epigram",d:"A genre. A short, pithy poem wittily expressed, often with wounding intent."}; fc[59] = {t:"Epigraph",d:"(Greek "inscription"): a genre. Any formal statement inscribed on stone; also the brief formulation on a book's title page, or a quotation at the beginning of a poem, introducing the work's themes in the most compressed form possible."}; fc[60] = {t:"Epistle",d:"(Latin "letter"): a genre. The letter can be shaped as a literary form, involving an intimate address often between equals. The Epistles of Horace provided a model for English writers from the sixteenth century. Letters can be shaped to form the matter of an extended fiction, as the eighteenth-century epistolary novel."}; fc[61] = {t:"Epitaph",d:"A genre. A pithy formulation to be inscribed on a funeral monument."}; fc[62] = {t:"Epithalamion",d:"(Greek "concerning the bridal chamber"): a genre. A wedding poem, celebrating the marriage and wishing the couple good fortune."}; fc[63] = {t:"Epyllion",d:"(plural "epyllia") (Greek: "little epic"): a genre. A relatively short poem in the meter of epic poetry."}; fc[64] = {t:"Essay",d:"(French "trial, attempt"): a genre. An informal philosophical meditation, usually in prose and sometimes in verse. The journalistic periodical essay was developed in the early eighteenth century."}; fc[65] = {t:"Euphemism",d:"(Greek "sweet saying"): a figure of thought. The figure by which something distasteful is described in alternative, less repugnant terms (e.g., "he passed away")."}; fc[66] = {t:"Exegesis",d:"(Greek "leading out": interpretation, traditionally of the biblical text, but, by transference, of any text."}; fc[67] = {t:"Exemplum",d:"(Latin "example"): an example inserted into a usually nonfictional writing (e.g., sermon or essay) to give extra force to an abstract thesis."}; fc[68] = {t:"Fabliau",d:"(French "little story," plural fabliaux): a genre. A short, funny, often bawdy narrative in low style imitated and developed from French models."}; fc[69] = {t:"Farce",d:"(French "stuffing"): a genre. A play designed to provoke laughter through the often humiliating antics of stock characters."}; fc[70] = {t:"Figures of speech",d:"Literary language often employs patterns perceptible to the eyeand/or to the ear. Such patterns are called "figures of speech"; in classical rhetoric they were called "schemes" (from Greek "schema," meaning "form, figure")."}; fc[71] = {t:"Figures of thought",d:"Language can also be patterned conceptually, even outside the rules that normally govern it. Literary language in particular exploits this licensed linguistic irregularity. Synonyms for figures of thought are "trope" (Greek "twisting," referring to the irregularity of use) and "conceit" (Latin "concept," referring to the fact that these figures are perceptible only to the mind). Be careful not to confuse trope with topos (a common error)."}; fc[72] = {t:"First-person narration",d:"Relevant to point of view, a narrative in which the voice narrating refers to itself with forms of the first-person pronoun ("I," "me," "my," etc., or possibly "we," "us," "our"), and in which the narrative is determined by the limitations of that voice."}; fc[73] = {t:"Frame narrative",d:"Some narratives, particularly collections of narratives, involve a frame narrative that explains the genesis of, and/or gives a perspective on, the main narrative or narratives to follow."}; fc[74] = {t:"Free indirect style",d:"Relevant to point of view, a narratorial voice that manages,without explicit reference, to imply, and often implicitly to comment on, the voice of a character in the narrative itself. Virginia Woolf, "A Sketch of the Past," where the voice, although strictly that of the adult narrator, manages to convey the child's manner of perception: "—I begin: the first memory. This was of red and purple flowers on a black background-my mother's dress.""}; fc[75] = {t:"Genre and mode",d:"The style, structure, and, often, length of a work, when coupled with a certain subject matter, raise expectations that a literary work conforms to a certain genre (French "kind"). Good writers might upset these expectations, but they remain aware of the expectations and thwart them purposefully. Works in different genres may nevertheless participate in the same mode, a broader category designating the fundamental perspectives governing various genres of writing. Genres are fluid, sometimes very fluid (e.g., the novel); the word "usually" should be added to almost every account of the characteristics of a given genre!"}; fc[76] = {t:"Georgic",d:"(Greek "farming"): a genre. Virgil's Georgics treat agricultural and occasionally scientific subjects, giving instructions on the proper management of farms. Unlike pastoral, which treats the countryside as a place of recreational idleness among shepherds, the georgic treats it as a place of productive labor."}; fc[77] = {t:"Hermeneutics",d:"(from the Greek god Hermes, messenger between the gods and humankind): the science of interpretation, first formulated as such by the German philosophical theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher in the early nineteenth century."}; fc[78] = {t:"Heroic poetry",d:"A genre. An extended narrative poem celebrating martial heroes, invoking divine inspiration, beginning in medias res, written in a high style (including the deployment of epic similes), and divided into long narrative sequences. "}; fc[79] = {t:"Hexameter",d:"(Greek "six measure"): a term of meter. The hexameter line (a six-stress line) is the meter of classical Latin epic; while not imitated in that form for epic verse in English, some instances of the hexameter exist. For example, the last line of a Spenserian stanza, Faerie Queene 1.1.2: "O help thou my weake wit, and sharpen my dull tong," or Yeats, "The Lake Isle of Innisfree," line 1: "I will arise and go now, and go to Innisfree.""}; fc[80] = {t:"Homily",d:"(Greek "discourse"): a genre. A sermon, to be preached in church; Book of Homilies. Writers of literary fiction sometimes exploit the homily, or sermon."}; fc[81] = {t:"Homophone",d:"(Greek "same sound"): a figure of speech. A word that sounds identical to another word but has a different meaning ("bear" / "bare")."}; fc[82] = {t:"Hyperbaton",d:"(Greek "overstepping"): a term of syntax. The rearrangement, or inversion, of the expected word order in a sentence or clause. Gray, "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard," line 38: "If Memory o'er their tomb no trophies raise.""}; fc[83] = {t:"Hyperbole",d:"(Greek "throwing over"): a figure of thought. Overstatement, exaggeration; Marvell, "To His Coy Mistress," lines 11-12: "My vegetable love would grow / Vaster than empires, and more slow" ; Auden, "As I Walked Out One Evening," lines 9-12: "I'l love you, dear, I'll love you / Till China and Africa meet / And the river jumps over the mountain / And the salmon sing in the street.""}; fc[84] = {t:"Hypermetrical",d:"(adj.; Greek "over measured"): a term of meter; the word describes a breaking of the expected metrical pattern by at least one extra syllable."}; fc[85] = {t:"Hypotaxis",d:"Or subordination (respectively Greek and Latin "ordering under"): a term of syntax. The subordination, by the use of subordinate clauses, of different elements of a sentence to a single main verb. Milton, Paradise Lost 9.513-15: "As when a ship by skillful steersman wrought / Nigh river's mouth or foreland, where the wind / Veers oft, as oft so steers, and shifts her sail; So varied he." The contrary principle to parataxis."}; fc[86] = {t:"Iamb",d:"A term of rhythm. The basic foot of English verse; two syllables following the rhythmic pattern of unstressed followed by stressed and producing a rising effect. Thus, for example, "Vermont.""}; fc[87] = {t:"Imitation",d:"the practice whereby writers strive ideally to reproduce and yet renew the conventions of an older form, often derived from classical civilization. Such a practice will be praised in periods of classicism (e.g., the eighteenth century) and repudiated in periods dominated by a model of inspiration (e.g., Romanticism)."}; fc[88] = {t:"Irony",d:"(Greek "dissimulation"): a figure of thought. In broad usage, irony designates the result of inconsistency between a statement and a context that undermines the statement. "It's a beautiful day" is unironic if it's a beautiful day; if, however, the weather is terrible, then the inconsistency between statement and context is ironic. The effect is often amusing; the need to be ironic is sometimes produced by censorship of one kind or another. Strictly, irony is a subset of allegory: whereas allegory says one thing and means another, irony says one thing and means its opposite."}; fc[89] = {t:"Journal",d:"(French "daily"): a genre. A diary, or daily record of ephemeral experience, whose perspectives are concentrated on, and limited by, the experiences of single days."}; fc[90] = {t:"Lai",d:"A genre. A short narrative, often characterized by images of great intensity; a French term."}; fc[91] = {t:"Legend",d:"(Latin "requiring to be read"): a genre. A narrative of a celebrated, possibly historical, but mortal protagonist. "}; fc[92] = {t:"Lexical set",d:"Words that habitually recur together (e.g., January, February, March, etc.; or red, white, and blue) form a lexical set."}; fc[93] = {t:"Litotes",d:"(from Greek "smooth"): a figure of thought. Strictly, understatement by denying the contrary; More, Utopia : "differences of no slight import." More loosely, understatement; Swift, "A Tale of a Tub": "Last week I saw a woman flayed, and you will hardly believe how much it altered her person for the worse." Stevie Smith, "Sunt Leones," lines 11–12: "And if the Christians felt a little blue— / Well people being eaten often do.""}; fc[94] = {t:"Lullaby",d:"A genre. A bedtime, sleep-inducing song for children, in simple and regular meter."}; fc[95] = {t:"Lyric",d:"(from Greek "lyre"): Initially meaning a song, "lyric" refers to a short poetic form, without restriction of meter, in which the expression of personal emotion, often by a voice in the first person, is given primacy over narrative sequence."}; fc[96] = {t:"Masque",d:"A genre. Costly entertainments of the Stuart court, involving dance, song, speech, and elaborate stage effects, in which courtiers themselves participated."}; fc[97] = {t:"Metaphor",d:"(Greek "carrying across," etymologically parallel to Latin "translation*#34;): One of the most significant figures of thought, metaphor designates identification or implicit identification of one thing with another with which it is not literally identifiable. Blake, "London," lines 11–12: "And the hapless Soldier's sigh / Runs in blood down Palace walls.""}; fc[98] = {t:"Meter",d:"Verse (from Latin "versus," turned) is distinguished from prose (from Latin "prorsus," straightforward) as a more compressed form of expression, shaped by metrical norms. Meter (Greek "measure") refers to the regularly recurring sound pattern of verse lines. The means of producing sound patterns across lines differ in different poetic traditions. Verse may be quantitative, or determined by the quantities of syllables (set patterns of long and short syllables), as in Latin and Greek poetry. It may be syllabic, determined by fixed numbers of syllables in the line, as in the verse of Romance languages (e.g., French and Italian). It may be accentual, determined by the number of accents, or stresses in the line, with variable numbers of syllables, as in Old English and some varieties of Middle English alliterative verse. Or it may be accentual-syllabic, determined by the numbers of accents, but possessing a regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables, so as to produce regular numbers of syllables per line. Since Chaucer, English verse has worked primarily within the many possibilities of accentual-syllabic meter. The unit of meter is the foot. In English verse the number of feet per line corresponds to the number of accents in a line. For the types and examples of different meters, see monometer, dimeter, trimester, tetrameter, pentameter, and hexameter. In the definitions below, "u" designates one unstressed syllable, and "/" one stressed syllable."}; fc[99] = {t:"Metonymy",d:"(Greek "change of name"): one of the most significant figures of thought. Using a word to denote another concept or other concepts, by virtue of habitual association. Thus "The Press," designating printed news media. Fictional names often work by associations of this kind. Closely related to synecdoche."}; fc[100] = {t:"Mimesis",d:"(Greek for "imitation"): A central function of literature and drama has been to provide a plausible imitation of the reality of the world beyond the literary work; mimesis is the representation and imitation of what is taken to be reality."}; fc[101] = {t:"Mise-en-abyme",d:"(French for "cast into the abyss"): Some works of art represent themselves in themselves; if they do so effectively, the represented artifact also represents itself, and so ad infinitum. The effect achieved is called "mise-en-abyme." Hoccleve's Complaint, for example, represents a depressed man reading about a depressed man. This sequence threatens to become a mise-en-abyme."}; fc[102] = {t:"Monometer",d:"(Greek "one measure"): a term of meter. An entire line with just one stress; Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, line 15, "most (u) grand (/).""}; fc[103] = {t:"Myth",d:"A genre. The narrative of protagonists with, or subject to, superhuman powers. A myth expresses some profound foundational truth, often by accounting for the origin of natural phenomena. To be distinguished from legend. Thus the "Arthurian legend" but the "myth of Proserpine.""}; fc[104] = {t:"Novel",d:"An extremely flexible genre in both form and subject matter. Usually in prose, giving high priority to narration of events, with a certain expectation of length, novels are preponderantly rooted in a specific, and often complex, social world; sensitive to the realities of material life; and often focused on one character or a small circle of central characters. By contrast with chivalric romance (the main European narrative genre prior to the novel), novels tend to eschew the marvelous in favor of a recognizable social world and credible action. The novel's openness allows it to participate in all modes, and to be co-opted for a huge variety of subgenres. In English literature the novel dates from the late seventeenth century and has been astonishingly successful in appealing to a huge readership, particularly in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The English and Irish tradition of the novel includes, for example, Fielding, Austen, the Brontë sisters, Dickens, George Eliot, Conrad, Woolf, Lawrence, Joyce, to name but a few very great exponents of the genre."}; fc[105] = {t:"Novella",d:"A genre. A short novel, often characterized by imagistic intensity."}; fc[106] = {t:"Occupatio",d:"(Latin "taking possession"): a figure of thought. Denying that one will discuss a subject while actually discussing it; also known as "praeteritio" (Latin "passing by")."}; fc[107] = {t:"Ode",d:"(Greek "song"): a genre. A lyric poem in elevated, or high style, often addressed to a natural force, a person, or an abstract quality. The Pindaric ode in English is made up of stanzas of unequal length, while the Horatian ode has stanzas of equal length. "}; fc[108] = {t:"Omniscient narrator",d:"(Latin "all-knowing narrator"): relevant to point of view. A narrator who, in the fiction of the narrative, has complete access to both the deeds and the thoughts of all characters in the narrative."}; fc[109] = {t:"Onomatopoeia",d:"(Greek "name making"): a figure of speech. Verbal sounds that imitate and evoke the sounds they denotate. Hopkins, \"\"Binsey Poplars,\"\" lines 10–12 (about some felled trees): "O if we but knew what we do / When we delve [dig] or hew— / Hack and rack the growing green!""}; fc[110] = {t:"Order",d:"A story may be told in different narrative orders. A narrator might use the sequence of events as they happened, and thereby follow what classical rhetoricians called the natural order; alternatively, the narrator might reorder the sequence of events, beginning the narration either in the middle or at the end of the sequence of events, thereby following an artificial order. If a narrator begins in the middle of events, he or she is said to begin in medias res (Latin "in the middle of the matter"). Modern narratology makes a related distinction, between histoire (French "story") for the natural order that readers mentally reconstruct, and discours (French, here "narration") for the narrative as presented."}; fc[111] = {t:"Ottava rima",d:"A verse form. An eight-line stanza form, rhyming abababcc, using iambic pentameter. Derived from the Italian poet Boccaccio, an eight-line stanza was used by fifteenth century English poets for inset passages (e.g., Christ's speech from the Cross in Lydgate's Testament, lines 754–897). The form in this rhyme scheme was used in English poetry for long narrative by, for example, Byron."}; fc[112] = {t:"Oxymoron",d:"(Greek "sharp blunt"): a figure of thought. The conjunction of normally incompatible terms."}; fc[113] = {t:"Panegyric",d:"Demonstrative, or epideictic (Greek "showing"), rhetoric was a branch of classical rhetoric. Its own two main branches were the rhetoric of praise on the one hand and of vituperation on the other. Panegyric, or eulogy (Greek "sweet speaking"), or encomium (plural encomia), is the term used to describe the speeches or writings of praise."}; fc[114] = {t:"Parable",d:"A genre. A simple story designed to provoke, and often accompanied by, allegorical interpretation, most famously by Christ as reported in the Gospels"}; fc[115] = {t:"Paradox",d:"(Greek "contrary to received opinion"): a figure of thought. An apparent contradiction that requires thought to reveal an inner consistency. Chaucer, "Troilus's Song," line 12: "O sweete harm so quainte.""}; fc[116] = {t:"Parataxis",d:"Or coordination (respectively Greek and Latin "ordering beside"): a term of syntax. The coordination, by the use of coordinating conjunctions, of different main clauses in a single sentence. Malory, "Morte Darthur": "So Sir Lancelot departed and took his sword under his arm, and so he walked in his mantel, that noble knight, and put himself in great jeopardy." The opposite priniciple to hypotaxis."}; fc[117] = {t:"Parody",d:"A work that uses the conventions of a particular genre with the aim of comically mocking a topos, a genre, or a particular exponent of a genre."}; fc[118] = {t:"Pastoral",d:"(from Latin "pastor," shepherd): a genre. Pastoral is set among shepherds, making often refined allusion to other apparently unconnected subjects (sometimes politics) from the potentially idyllic world of highly literary if illiterate shepherds. Pastoral is distinguished from georgic by representing recreational rural idleness, whereas the georgic offers instruction on how to manage rural labor. English writers had classical models in the Idylls of Theocritus in Greek and Virgil's Eclogues in Latin. Pastoral is also called bucolic (from the Greek word for "herdsman")."}; fc[119] = {t:"Pathetic fallacy",d:"The attribution of sentiment to natural phenomena, as if they were in sympathy with human feelings. Thus Milton, Lycidas, lines 146–147: "With cowslips wan that hang the pensive head, / And every flower that sad embroidery wears.""}; fc[120] = {t:"Pentameter",d:"(Greek "five measure"): a term of meter. In English verse, a five-stress line. Between the late fourteenth and the nineteenth centuries, this meter, frequently employing an iambic rhythm, was the basic line of English verse. Chaucer, Shakespeare, Milton, and Wordsworth each, for example, deployed this very flexible line as their primary resource; Milton, Paradise Lost 1.128: "O Prince, O Chief of many thronèd Powers.""}; fc[121] = {t:"Performative",d:"Verbal expressions have many different functions. They can, for example, be descriptive, or constative (if they make an argument), or performative, for example. A performative utterance is one that makes something happen in the world by virtue of its utterance. "I hereby sentence you to ten years in prison," if uttered in the appropriate circumstances, itself performs an action; it makes something happen in the world. By virtue of its performing an action, it is called a "performative.""}; fc[122] = {t:"Peripeteia",d:"(Greek "turning about"): the sudden reversal of fortune (in both directions) in a dramatic work."}; fc[123] = {t:"Periphrasis",d:"(Greek "declaring around"): a figure of thought. Circumlocution; the use of many words to express what could be expressed in few or one."}; fc[124] = {t:"Persona",d:"(Latin "sound through"): originally the mask worn in the Roman theater to magnify an actor's voice; in literary discourse persona (plural personae) refers to the narrator or speaker of a text, whose voice is coherent and whose person need have no relation to the person of the actual author of a text."}; fc[125] = {t:"Personification",d:"Or prosopopoeia (Greek "person making"): a figure of thought. The attribution of human qualities to nonhuman forces or objects; Shakespeare, King Lear 3.2.1: "Blow winds and crack your cheeks, rage! Blow!""}; fc[126] = {t:"Plot",d:"The sequence of events in a story as narrated, as distinct from story, which refers to the sequence of events as we reconstruct them from the plot."}; fc[127] = {t:"Point of view",d:"All of the many kinds of writing involve a point of view from which a text is, or seems to be, generated. The presence of such a point of view may be powerful and explicit, as in many novels, or deliberately invisible, as in much drama. In some genres, such as the novel, the narrator does not necessarily tell the story from a position we can predict; that is, the needs of a particular story, not the conventions of the genre, determine the narrator's position. In other genres, the narrator's position is fixed by convention; in certain kinds of love poetry, for example, the narrating voice is always that of a suffering lover. Not only does the point of view significantly inform the style of a work, but it also informs the structure of that work."}; fc[128] = {t:"Protagonist",d:"(Greek "first actor"): the hero or heroine of a drama or narrative."}; fc[129] = {t:"Pun",d:"A figure of thought. A sometimes irresolvable doubleness of meaning in a single word or expression; Shakespeare, Sonnet 135, line 1: "Whoever hath her wish, thou hast thy Will.""}; fc[130] = {t:"Quatrain",d:"A verse form. A stanza of four lines, usually rhyming abcb, abab, or abba. Of many possible examples, see Crashaw, "On the Wounds of Our Crucified Lord.""}; fc[131] = {t:"Refrain",d:"Usually a single line repeated as the last line of consecutive stanzas,sometimes with subtly different wording and ideally with subtly different meaning as the poem progresses."}; fc[132] = {t:"Register",d:"The register of a word is its stylistic level, which can be distinguished by degree of technicality but also by degree of formality. We choose our words from different registers according to context, that is, audience and/or environment. Thus a chemist in a laboratory will say "sodium chloride," a cook in a kitchen "salt." A formal register designates the kind of language used in polite society (e.g., "Mr. President"), while an informal or colloquial register is used in less formal or more relaxed social situations (e.g., "the boss"). In classical and medieval rhetoric, these registers of formality were called high style and low style. A middle style was defined as the style fit for narrative, not drawing attention to itself."}; fc[133] = {t:"Rhetoric",d:"The art of verbal persuasion. Classical rhetoricians distinguished threeare as of rhetoric: the forensic, to be used in law courts; the deliberative, to be used in political or philosophical deliberations; and the demonstrative, or epideictic, to be used for the purposes of public praise or blame. Rhetorical manuals covered all the skills required of a speaker, from the management of style and structure to delivery. These manuals powerfully influenced the theory of poetics as a separate branch of verbal practice, particularly in the matter of style."}; fc[134] = {t:"Rhyme",d:"The repetition of identical vowel sounds in stressed syllables whose initial consonants differ ("dead" / "head"). In poetry, rhyme often links the end of one line with another. Masculine rhyme: full rhyme on the final syllable of the line ("decays" / "days"). Feminine rhyme: full rhyme on syllables that are followed by unaccented syllables ("fountains" / "mountains"). Internal rhyme: full rhyme within a single line; Coleridge, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, line 7: "The guests are met, the feast is set." Rhyme riche: rhyming on homophones; Chaucer, General Prologue, lines 17–18: "seeke" / "seke." Off rhyme (also known as half rhyme, near rhyme, or slant rhyme): differs from perfect rhyme in changing the vowel sound and/or the concluding consonants expected of perfect rhyme; Byron, "They say that Hope is Happiness," lines 5–7: "most" / "lost." Pararhyme: stressed vowel sounds differ but are flanked by identical or similar consonants; Owen, "Miners," lines 9–11: "simmer" / "summer.""}; fc[135] = {t:"Rhyme royal",d:"A verse form. A stanza of seven iambic pentameter lines, rhyming ababbcc; first introduced by Chaucer and called "royal" because the form was used by James I of Scotland for his Kingis Quair in the early fifteenth century. "}; fc[136] = {t:"Rhythm",d:"Rhythm is not absolutely distinguishable from meter. One way of making a clear distinction between these terms is to say that rhythm (from the Greek "to flow") denotes the patterns of sound within the feet of verse lines and the combination of those feet. Very often a particular meter will raise expectations that a given rhythm will be used regularly through a whole line or a whole poem. Thus in English verse the pentameter regularly uses an iambic rhythm. Rhythm, however, is much more fluid than meter, and many lines within the same poem using a single meter will frequently exploit different rhythmic possibilities."}; fc[137] = {t:"Romance",d:"From the twelfth to the sixteenth century, the main form of European narrative, in either verse or prose, was that of chivalric romance. Romance, like the later novel, is a very fluid genre, but romances are often characterized by (i) a tripartite structure of social integration, followed by disintegration, involving moral tests and often marvelous events, itself the prelude to reintegration in a happy ending, frequently of marriage; and (ii) aristocratic social milieux. The immensely popular, fertile genre was absorbed, in both domesticated and undomesticated form, by the novel."}; fc[138] = {t:"Sarcasm",d:"(Greek "flesh tearing"): a figure of thought. A wounding expression, often expressed ironically; Boswell, Life of Johnson: Johnson [asked if any man of the modern age could have written the epic poem Fingal] replied, "Yes, Sir, many men, many women, and many children.""}; fc[139] = {t:"Satire",d:"(Latin for "a bowl of mixed fruits"): a genre. In Roman literature (e.g., Juvenal), the communication, in the form of a letter between equals, complaining of the ills of contemporary society. The genre in this form is characterized by a first-person narrator exasperated by social ills; the letter form; a high frequency of contemporary reference; and the use of invective in low-style language. Pope practices the genre thus in the Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot. Wyatt's "Mine own John Poins" draws ultimately on a gentler, Horatian model of the genre."}; fc[140] = {t:"Satiric mode",d:"Works in a very large variety of genres are devoted to the more or less savage attack on social ills. Thus Swift's travel narrative Gulliver's Travels, his essay "A Modest Proposal",\"\" Pope's mock- epic The Dunciad, and Gay's Beggar's Opera, to look no further than the eighteenth century, are all within a satiric mode."}; fc[141] = {t:"Scene",d:"A subdivision of an act, itself a subdivision of a dramatic performance and/or text. The action of a scene usually occurs in one place."}; fc[142] = {t:"Sensibility",d:"(From Latin, "capable of being perceived by the senses"): as a literary term, an eighteenth-century concept derived from moral philosophy that stressed the social importance of fellow feeling and particularly of sympathy in social relations. The concept generated a literature of "sensibility," such as the sentimental novel (the most famous of which was Goethe's Sorrows of the Young Werther [1774]), or sentimental poetry, such as Cowper's passage on the stricken deer in The Task."}; fc[143] = {t:"Short story",d:"A genre. Generically similar to, though shorter and more concentrated than, the novel; often published as part of a collection."}; fc[144] = {t:"Simile",d:"A figure of thought. Comparison, usually using the word "like" or "as," of one thing with another so as to produce sometimes surprising analogies. Donne, "The Storm," lines 29–30: "Sooner than you read this line did the gale, / Like shot, not feared till felt, our sails assail." Frequently used, in extended form, in epic poetry."}; fc[145] = {t:"Soliloquy",d:"(Latin "single speaking"): a topos of drama, in which a character, alone or thinking to be alone on stage, speaks so as to give the audience access to his or her private thoughts."}; fc[146] = {t:"Sonnet",d:"A form combining a variable number of units of rhymed lines to produce a fourteen-line poem, usually in rhyming iambic pentameter lines. In English there are two principal varieties: the Petrarchan sonnet, formed by an octave (an eight-line stanza, often broken into two quatrains having the same rhyme scheme, typically abba abba) and a sestet (a six-line stanza, typically cdecde or cdcdcd); and the Shakespearean sonnet, formed by three quatrains (abab cdcd efef) and a couplet (gg). The declaration of a sonnet can take a sharp turn, or "volta," often at the decisive formal shift from octave to sestet in the Petrarchan sonnet, or in the final couplet of a Shakespearean sonnet, introducing a trenchant counterstatement. Derived from Italian poetry, and especially from the poetry of Petrarch, the sonnet was first introduced to English poetry by Wyatt, and initially used principally for the expression of unrequited erotic love, though later poets used the form for many other purposes."}; fc[147] = {t:"Speech act",d:"Words and deeds are often distinguished, but words are often (perhaps always) themselves deeds. Utterances can perform different speech acts, such as promising, declaring, casting a spell, encouraging, persuading, denying, lying, and so on."}; fc[148] = {t:"Spenserian stanza",d:"The stanza developed by Spenser for The Faerie Queene; nine iambic lines, the first eight of which are pentameters, followed by one hexameter, rhyming ababbcbcc."}; fc[149] = {t:"Spondee",d:"A term of meter. A two-syllable foot following the rhythmic pattern, in English verse, of two stressed syllables. Thus, for example, "Utah.""}; fc[150] = {t:"Stanza",d:"(Italian "room"): groupings of two or more lines, though "stanza" is usually reserved for groupings of at least four lines. Stanzas are often joined by rhyme, often in sequence, where each group shares the same metrical pattern and, when rhymed, rhyme scheme. Stanzas can themselves be arranged into larger groupings. Poets often invent new verse forms, or they may work within established forms."}; fc[151] = {t:"Story",d:"A narrative's sequence of events, which we reconstruct from those events as they have been recounted by the narrator (i.e., the plot)."}; fc[152] = {t:"Stream of consciousness",d:"Usually a first-person narrative that seems to give the reader access to the narrator's mind as it perceives or reflects on events, prior to organizing those perceptions into a coherent narrative."}; fc[153] = {t:"Style",d:"(from Latin for "writing instrument"): In literary works the manner in which something is expressed contributes substantially to its meaning. The expressions "sun," "mass of helium at the center of the solar system," "heaven's golden orb" all designate "sun," but do so in different manners, or styles, which produce different meanings. The manner of a literary work is its "style," the effect of which is its "tone." We often can intuit the tone of a text; from that intuition of tone we can analyze the stylistic resources by which it was produced. We can analyze the style of literary works through consideration of different elements of style; for example, diction, figures of thought, figures of speech, meter and rhythm, verse form, syntax, point of view."}; fc[154] = {t:"Sublime",d:"As a concept generating a literary movement, the sublime refers to the realm of experience beyond the measurable, and so beyond the rational, produced especially by the terrors and grandeur of natural phenomena. Derived especially from the first-century Greek treatise On the Sublime, sometimes attributed to Longinus, the notion of the sublime was in the later eigh teenth century a spur to Romanticism."}; fc[155] = {t:"Syllable",d:"The smallest unit of sound in a pronounced word. The syllable that receives the greatest stress is called the ,em>tonic syllable."}; fc[156] = {t:"Symbol",d:"(Greek "token"(: a figure of thought. Something that stands for something else, and yet seems necessarily to evoke that other thing. In Neoplatonic, and therefore Romantic, theory, to be distinguished from allegory thus: whereas allegory involves connections between vehicle and tenor agreed by convention or made explicit, the meanings of a symbol are supposedly inherent to it."}; fc[157] = {t:"Synecdoche",d:"(Greek "to take with something else"): a figure of thought. Using a part to express the whole, or vice versa; e.g., "all hands on deck." Closely related to metonymy."}; fc[158] = {t:"Syntax",d:"(Greek "ordering with"): Syntax designates the rules by which sentences are constructed in a given language. Discussion of meter is impossible without some reference to syntax, since the overall effect of a poem is, in part, always the product of a subtle balance of meter and sentence construction. Syntax is also essential to the understanding of prose style, since prose writers, deprived of the full shaping possibilities of meter, rely all the more heavily on syntactic resources. A working command of syntactical practice requires an understanding of the parts of speech (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, pronouns, prepositions, and interjections), since writers exploit syntactic possibilities by using particular combinations and concentrations of the parts of speech."}; fc[159] = {t:"Taste",d:"(from Italian "touch"): Although medieval monastic traditions used eating and tasting as a metaphor for reading, the concept of taste as a personal ideal to be cultivated by, and applied to, the appreciation and judgment of works of art in general was developed in the eighteenth century."}; fc[160] = {t:"Tercet",d:"A verse form. A stanza or group of three lines, used in larger forms such as terza rima, the Petrarchan sonnet, and the villanelle."}; fc[161] = {t:"Terza rima",d:"A verse form. A sequence of rhymed tercets linked by rhyme thus: aba bcb cdc, etc. first used extensively by Dante in The Divine Comedy, the form was adapted in English iambic pentameters by Wyatt and revived in the nineteenth century."}; fc[162] = {t:"Tetrameter",d:"(Greek "four measure"): a term of meter. A line with four stresses. Coleridge, Christabel, line 31: "She stole along, she nothing spoke.""}; fc[163] = {t:"Theme",d:"(Greek "proposition&334;): In literary criticism the term designates what the work is about; the theme is the concept that unifies a given work of literature."}; fc[164] = {t:"Third-person narration",d:"Relevant to point of view. A narration in which the narrat or recounts a narrative of characters referred to explicitly or implicitly by third-person pronouns ("he," "she," etc.), without the limitation of a first-person narration."}; fc[165] = {t:"Topographical poem",d:"(Greek "place writing"): a genre. A poem devoted to the meditative description of particular places."}; fc[166] = {t:"Topos",d:"(Greek "place," plural topoi,/em>): a commonplace in the content of a given kind of literature. Originally, in classical rhetoric, the topoi were tried-and-tested stimuli to literary invention: lists of standard headings under which a subject might be investigated. In medieval narrative poems, for example, it was commonplace to begin with a description of spring. Writers did, of course, render the commonplace uncommon, as in Chaucer's spring scene at the opening of The Canterbury Tales."}; fc[167] = {t:"Tradition",d:"(from Latin \"\"passing on\"\"): A literary tradition is what ever is passed on or revived from the past in a single literary culture, or drawn from others to enrich a writer's culture. "Tradition" is fluid in reference, ranging from small to large referents: thus it may refer to a relatively small aspect of texts (e.g., the tradition of iambic pentameter), or it may, at the other extreme, refer to the body of texts that constitute a canon."}; fc[168] = {t:"Tragedy",d:"A genre. A dramatic representation of the fall of kings or nobles, beginning in happiness and ending in catastrophe. Later transferred to other social milieux. The opposite of comedy."}; fc[169] = {t:"Tragic mode",d:"Many genres (epic poetry, legendary chronicles, tragedy, the novel) either do or can participate in a tragic mode, by representing the fall of noble protagonists and the irreparable ravages of human society and history."}; fc[170] = {t:"Tragicomedy",d:"A play in which potentially tragic events turn out to have a happy, or comic, ending."}; fc[171] = {t:"Translation",d:"(Latin "carrying across"): the rendering of a text written in one language into another."}; fc[172] = {t:"Trimeter",d:"(Greek "three measure"): a term of meter. A line with three stresses. Herbert, "Discipline," line 1: "Throw away thy rod.""}; fc[173] = {t:"Triplet",d:"A verse form. A tercet rhyming on the same sound. Pope inserts triplets among heroic couplets to emphasize a particular thought."}; fc[174] = {t:"Trochee",d:"A term of rhythm. A two-syllable foot following the pattern, in English verse, of stressed followed by unstressed syllable, producing a falling effect. Thus, for example, \"\"Texas.\"\""}; fc[175] = {t:"Type",d:"(Greek "impression, figure"): a figure of thought In Christian allegorical interpretation of the Old Testament, pre-Christian figures were regarded as \"\"types,\"\" or foreshadowings, of Christ or the Christian dispensation. Typology has been the source of much visual and literary art in which the parallelisms between old and new are extended to nonbiblical figures; thus the virtuous plowman in Piers Plowman becomes a type of Christ."}; fc[176] = {t:"Unities",d:"According to a theory supposedly derived from Aristotle's Poetics, the events represented in a play should have unity of time, place, and action: that the play take up no more time than the time of the play, or at most a day; that the space of action should be within a single city; and that there should be no subplot."}; fc[177] = {t:"Vernacular",d:"(from Latin "verna," servant): the language of the people, as distinguished from learned and arcane languages. From the later Middle Ages especially, the "vernacular" languages and literatures of Europe distinguished themselves from the learned languages and literatures of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew."}; fc[178] = {t:"Verse form",d:"The terms related to meter and rhythm describe the shape of individual lines. Lines of verse are combined to produce larger groupings, called verse forms. These larger groupings are in the first instance stanzas. The combination of a certain meter and stanza shape constitutes the verse form, of which there are many standard kinds."}; fc[179] = {t:"Villanelle",d:"A verse form. A fixed form of usually five tercets and a quatrain employing only two rhyme sounds altogether, rhyming aba for the tercets and abaa for the quatrain, with a complex pattern of two refrains. Derived from a French fixed form. Thomas, "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night.""}; fc[180] = {t:"Wit",d:"Originally a synonym for "reason" in Old and Middle English, "wit" became a literary ideal in the Renaissance as brilliant play of the full range of mental resources. For eighteenth-century writers, the notion necessarily involved pleasing expression, as in Pope's definition of true wit as "Nature to advantage dressed, / What oft was thought, but ne'er so well expressed." Romantic theory of the imagination deprived wit of its full range of apprehension, whence the word came to be restricted to its modern sense, as the clever play of mind that produces laughter."}; fc[181] = {t:"Zeugma",d:"(Greek "a yoking"): a figure of thought. A figure whereby one word applies to two or more words in a sentence, and in which the applications are surprising, either because one is unusual, or because the applications are made in very different ways; Pope, Rape of the Lock 3.7–8, in which the word "take" is used in two senses: "Here thou, great Anna! whom three realms obey, / Dost sometimes counsel take—and sometimes tea.""}; fc[182] = {t:"Bookseller",d:"In England, and particularly in London, commercial bookmaking and selling enterprises came into being in the early fourteenth century. These were loose organizations of artisans who usually lived in the same neighborhoods (around St. Paul's Cathedral in London). A bookseller or dealer would coordinate the production of hand-copied books for wealthy patrons, who would order books to be custom-made. After the introduction of printing in the late fifteenth century, authors generally sold the rights to their work to booksellers, without any further royalties. Booksellers, who often had their own shops, belonged to the Stationers' Company. This system lasted into the eigh teenth century. In 1710, however, authors were for the first time granted copyright, which tipped the commercial balance in their favor, against booksellers."}; fc[183] = {t:"Censorship",d:"The term applies to any mechanism for restricting what can be published. Historically, the reasons for imposing censorship are heresy, sedition, blasphemy, libel, or obscenity. External censorship is imposed by institutions having legislative sanctions at their disposal. Thus the pre-Reformation Church imposed the Constitutions of Archbishop Arundel of 1409, aimed at repressing the Lollard "heresy." After the Reformation, some key events in the history of censorship are as follows: 1547, when anti-Lollard legislation and legislation made by Henry VIII concerning treason by writing (1534) were abolished; the Licensing Order of 1643, which legislated that works be licensed, through the Stationers' Company, prior to publication; and 1695, when the last such Act stipulating prepublication licensing lapsed. Postpublication censorship continued in different periods for different reasons. Thus, for example, British publication of D. H. Lawrence's Lady Chatterley's Lover (1928) was obstructed (though unsuccessfully) in 1960, under the Obscene Publications Act of 1959. Censorship can also be international: although not published in Iran, Salman Rushdie's Satanic Verses (1988) was censored in that country, where the leader, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, proclaimed a fatwa (religious decree) promising the author's execution. Very often censorship is not imposed externally, however: authors or publishers can censor work in anticipation of what will incur the wrath of readers or the penalties of the law. Victorian and Edwardian publishers of novels, for example, urged authors to remove potentially offensive material, especially for serial publication in popular magazines."}; fc[184] = {t:"Codex",d:"Rhe physical format of most modern books and medieval manuscripts, consisting of a series of separate leaves gathered into quires and bound together, often with a cover. In late antiquity, the codex largely replaced the scroll, the standard form of written documents in Roman culture."}; fc[185] = {t:"Copy text",d:"The particular text of a work used by a textual editor as the basis of an edition of that work."}; fc[186] = {t:"Copyright",d:"The legal protection afforded to authors for control of their work's publication, in an attempt to ensure due financial reward. Some key dates in the history of copyright in the United Kingdom are as follows: 1710, when a statute gave authors the exclusive right to publish their work for fourteen years, and fourteen years more if the author were still alive when the first term had expired; 1842, when the period of authorial control was extended to forty-two years; and 1911, when the term was extended yet further, to fifty years after the author's death. In 1995 the period of protection was harmonized with the laws in other Europe an countries to be the life of the author plus seventy years. In the United States no works first published before 1923 are in copyright. Works published since 1978 are, as in the United Kingdom, protected for the life of the author plus seventy years."}; fc[187] = {t:"Folio",d:"The leaf formed by both sides of a single page. Each folio has two sides: a recto (the front side of the leaf, on the right side of a double-page spread in an open codex), and a verso (the back side of the leaf, on the left side of a double-page spread). Modern book pagination follows the pattern 1, 2, 3, 4, while medieval manuscript pagination follows the pattern 1r, 1v, 2r, 2v. "Folio" can also designate the size of a printed book. Books come in different shapes, depending originally on the number of times a standard sheet of paper is folded. One fold produces a large volume, a folio book; two folds produce a quarto, four an octavoduodecimo,. Generally speaking, the larger the book, the grander and more expensive. Shakespeare's plays were, for example, first printed in quartos, but were gathered into a folio edition in 1623."}; fc[188] = {t:"Foul papers",d:"Versions of a work before an author has produced, if she or he has, a final copy (a "fair copy") with all corrections removed."}; fc[189] = {t:"Incunabulum",d:"(plural "incunabula"): any printed book produced in Europe before 1501. Famous incunabula include the Gutenberg Bible, printed in 1455."}; fc[190] = {t:"Manuscript",d:"(Latin, "written by hand"): Any text written physically by hand is a manuscript. Before the introduction of printing with moveable type in 1476, all texts in England were produced and reproduced by hand, in manuscript. This is an extremely labor-intensive task, using expensive materials (e.g., vellum, or parchment); the cost of books produced thereby was, accordingly, very high. Even after the introduction of printing, many texts continued to be produced in manuscript. This is obviously true of letters, for example, but until the eighteenth century, poetry written within aristocratic circles was often transmitted in manuscript copies."}; fc[191] = {t:"Paleography",d:"(Greek "ancient writing"): the art of deciphering, describing, and dating forms of handwriting."}; fc[192] = {t:"Parchment",d:"Animal skin, used as the material for handwritten books before the introduction of paper."}; fc[193] = {t:"Patronage",d:" patron\"\""}; fc[194] = {t:"Periodical",d:"Whereas journalism, strictly, applies to daily writing (from French \"\"jour,\"\" day), periodical writing appears at larger, but still frequent, intervals, characteristically in the form of the essay. Periodicals were developed especially in the eighteenth century."}; fc[195] = {t:"Printing",d:"Printing, or the mechanical reproduction of books using moveable type, was invented in Germany in the mid-fifteenth century by Johannes Gutenberg; it quickly spread throughout Europe. William Caxton brought printing into England from the Low Countries in 1476. Much greater powers of reproduction at much lower prices transformed every aspect of literary culture."}; fc[196] = {t:"Publisher",d:"The person or company responsible for the commissioning and publicizing of printed matter. In the early period of printing, publisher, printer, and bookseller were often the same person. This trend continued in the ascendancy of the Stationers' Company, between the middle of the sixteenth and the end of the seventeenth centuries. Toward the end of the seventeenth century, these three functions began to separate, leading to their modern distinctions."}; fc[197] = {t:"Quire",d:"When medieval manuscripts were assembled, a few loose sheets of parchment or paper would first be folded together and sewn along the fold. This formed a quire (also known as a "gathering" or "signature"). Folded in this way, four large sheets of parchment would produce eight smaller manuscript leaves. Multiple quires could then be bound together to form a codex."}; fc[198] = {t:"Royalties",d:"An agreed-upon proportion of the price of each copy of a work sold, paid by the publisher to the author, or an agreed-upon fee paid to the playwright for each per for mance of a play."}; fc[199] = {t:"Scribe",d:"In manuscript culture, the scribe is the copyist who reproduces a text by hand."}; fc[200] = {t:"Scriptorium",d:"(plural "scriptoria"): a place for producing written documents and manuscripts."}; fc[201] = {t:"Serial publication",d:"Generally referring to the practice, especially common in the nineteenth-century, of publishing novels a few chapters at a time, in periodicals."}; fc[202] = {t:"Stationers’ Company",d:"The Stationers' Company was an English guild incorporating various tradesmen, including printers, publishers, and booksellers, skilled in the production and selling of books. It was formed in 1403, received its royal charter in 1557, and served as a means both of producing and of regulating books. Authors would sell the manuscripts of their books to individual stationers, who incurred the risks and took the profits of producing and selling the books. The stationers entered their rights over given books in the Stationers' Register. They also regulated the book trade and held their monopoly by licensing books and by being empowered to seize unauthorized books and imprison resisters. This system of licensing broke down in the social unrest of the Civil War and Interregnum (1640–60), and it ended in 1695. Even after the end of licensing, the Stationers' Company continued to be an intrinsic part of the copyright process, since the 1710 copyright statute directed that copyright had to be registered at Stationers' Hall."}; fc[203] = {t:"Subscription",d:"An eighteenth-century system of bookselling somewhere between direct patronage and impersonal sales. A subscriber paid half the cost of a book before publication and half on delivery. The author received these payments directly. The subscriber's name appeared in the prefatory pages."}; fc[204] = {t:"Textual criticism",d:"Works in all periods often exist in many subtly or not so subtly different forms. This is especially true with regard to manuscript textual reproduction, but it also applies to printed texts. Textual criticism is the art, developed from the fifteenth century in Italy but raised to new levels of sophistication from the eighteenth century, of deciphering different historical states of texts. This art involves the analysis of textual variants, often with the aim of distinguishing authorial from scribal forms."}; fc[205] = {t:"Variant",d:"Differences that appear among different manuscripts or printed editions of the same text."}; fc[206] = {t:"Vellum",d:"Animal skin, used as the material for handwritten books before the introduction of paper."};