var nc = 53, fc = new Array(nc); fc[0] = {t:"Amplitude",d:"The height of the crest or the depth of the trough of a wave with respect to the center line of the wave."}; fc[1] = {t:"Angular Momentum Quantum Number (l)",d:"An integer having any value from 0 to n-1 that defines the shape of an orbital."}; fc[2] = {t:"Atomic Absorption Spectrum",d:"(also called dark-line spectrum)
A characteristic series of dark lines produced when free, gaseous atoms are illuminated by an external source of radiation."}; fc[3] = {t:"Atomic Emission Spectrum",d:"(also called bright-line spectrum)
A characteristic series of bright lines produced by excited-state atoms."}; fc[4] = {t:"Atomic Radius",d:"(also called covalent radius)
Half the distance between identical nuclear centers in a molecule."}; fc[5] = {t:"Aufbau Principle",d:"The method of building electron configurations of atoms by adding one electron at a time as atomic number increases across the rows of the periodic table."}; fc[6] = {t:"Core Electrons",d:"Electrons in the filled, inner shells in an atom or ion that are not involved in chemical reactions."}; fc[7] = {t:"Degenerate",d:"Describes orbitals of the same energy."}; fc[8] = {t:"Diffraction",d:"Bending of electromagnetic radiation as it passes around an edge of an object or through a narrow opening."}; fc[9] = {t:"Effective Nuclear Charge (Zeff)",d:"The attractive force toward the nucleus experienced by an electron in an atom; the positive charge on the nucleus reduced by the extent to which other electrons in the atom shield the electron from the nucleus."}; fc[10] = {t:"Electromagnetic Radiation",d:"Any form of radiant energy in the electromagnetic spectrum."}; fc[11] = {t:"Electromagnetic Spectrum",d:"A continuous range of radiant energy that includes radio waves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and gamma rays."}; fc[12] = {t:"Electron Affinity (EA)",d:"The energy change that occurs when 1 mole of electrons combines with 1 mole of atoms or ions in the gas phase."}; fc[13] = {t:"Electron Configuration",d:"The distribution of electrons among the orbitals of an atom or ion."}; fc[14] = {t:"Electron Transition",d:"Movement of an electron between energy levels."}; fc[15] = {t:"Excited State",d:"Any energy state in an atom or ion above the ground state."}; fc[16] = {t:"Fraunhofer Lines",d:"A set of dark lines in the otherwise continuous solar spectrum."}; fc[17] = {t:"Frequency (v)",d:"The number of crests of a wave that pass a stationary point of reference per second."}; fc[18] = {t:"Ground State",d:"The most stable, lowest energy state available to atom or ion."}; fc[19] = {t:"Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle",d:"One cannot determine both the position and the momentum of an electron in an atom at the same time."}; fc[20] = {t:"Hertz (Hz)",d:"The SI unit of frequency with units of reciprocal seconds: 1 Hz = 1 s-1 = 1 cycle per second (cps)."}; fc[21] = {t:"Hund’s Rule",d:"The lowest-energy electron configuration of an atom has the maximum number of unpaired electrons, all of which have the same spin, in degenerate orbitals."}; fc[22] = {t:"Interference",d:"The interaction of waves that results in either reinforcing their amplitudes (constructive interference) or canceling them out (destructive interference)."}; fc[23] = {t:"Ionic Radius",d:"Radius derived from the distance between nuclear centers in ionic crystals."}; fc[24] = {t:"Ionization Energy (IE)",d:"The amount of energy needed to remove 1 mole of electrons from 1 mole of ground-state atoms or ions in the gas phase."}; fc[25] = {t:"Isoelectronic",d:"Describes atoms of ions that have identical electron configurations."}; fc[26] = {t:"Magnetic Quantum Number (ml)",d:"Defines the orientation of an orbital in space; an integer that may have any value from -l to +l, where l is the angular momentum quantum number."}; fc[27] = {t:"Matter Wave",d:"The wave associated with any particle."}; fc[28] = {t:"Metallic Radius",d:"Half the distance between nuclear centers in the crystal of a metal."}; fc[29] = {t:"Node",d:"A location in a standing wave that experiences no displacement."}; fc[30] = {t:"Orbital Diagram",d:"Depiction of the arrangement of electrons in an atom or ion using boxes to represent orbitals."}; fc[31] = {t:"Orbital Penetration",d:"The probability that an electron in an outer orbital will be as close to the nucleus as an electron in an inner shell."}; fc[32] = {t:"Orbitals",d:"Defined by the square of the wave function (ψ2); regions around the nucleus of an atom where the probability of finding an electron is high and identified by a unique combination of three quantum numbers."}; fc[33] = {t:"Pauli Exclusion Principle",d:"No two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers."}; fc[34] = {t:"Photoelectric Effect",d:"When light striking a metal surface produces an electric current (a flow of electrons)."}; fc[35] = {t:"Photon",d:"A quantum of electromagnetic radiation."}; fc[36] = {t:"Planck’s Constant (h)",d:"The proportionality constant between the energy and frequency of electromagnetic radiation expressed in E = hv; h = 6.626 × 10-34 J · s."}; fc[37] = {t:"Principle Quantum Number (n)",d:"A positive integer describing the relative size and energy of an atomic orbital or group of orbitals in an atom."}; fc[38] = {t:"Quantized",d:"Having values restricted to whole-number multiples of a specific base value."}; fc[39] = {t:"Quantum",d:"(plural quanta) The smallest discrete quantity of a particular form of energy."}; fc[40] = {t:"Quantum Number",d:"One of four related numbers that specify the shape and energy of orbitals in an atom; the “address” of an electron in an atom or ion."}; fc[41] = {t:"Quantum Theory",d:"A model based on the idea that energy is absorbed and emitted in discrete quantities of energy called quanta."}; fc[42] = {t:"Refraction",d:"The bending of light as it passes from one medium to another of different density."}; fc[43] = {t:"Schrödinger Wave Equation",d:"A description of how the electron matter wave varies with location and time around the nucleus of a hydrogen atom."}; fc[44] = {t:"Shielding",d:"(also called screening)
The effect when inner-shell electrons protect outer-shell electrons from experiencing the total nuclear charge."}; fc[45] = {t:"Spin Magnetic Quantum Number (ms)",d:"Either +(1/2) or -(1/2), indicating that the spin orientation of an electron is either up or down."}; fc[46] = {t:"Standing Wave",d:"A wave confined to a given space with a wavelength λ related to the length L of the space by L = n(λ/2), where n is a whole number."}; fc[47] = {t:"Threshold Frequency (v0)",d:"The minimum frequency of light required to produce the photoelectric effect."}; fc[48] = {t:"Valence Electrons",d:"Electrons in the outermost occupied shell of an atom having the most influence on the atom’s chemical behavior."}; fc[49] = {t:"Wave Function (ψ)",d:"A solution to the Schrödinger wave equation."}; fc[50] = {t:"Wave Mechanics",d:"(also called quantum mechanics)
Mathematical description of the wavelike behavior of particles on the atomic level."}; fc[51] = {t:"Wavelength (λ)",d:"The distance from crest to crest or trough to trough on a wave."}; fc[52] = {t:"Work Function (θ)",d:"The amount of energy needed to dislodge an electron from the surface of a metal."};