var nc = 47, fc = new Array(nc); fc[0] = {t:"Bomb Calorimeter",d:"A constant-volume device used to measure the energy released during a combustion reaction."}; fc[1] = {t:"Calorie (cal)",d:"The amount of energy necessary to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1°C."}; fc[2] = {t:"Calorimeter",d:"A device used to measure the absorption or release of energy by a physical change or chemical process."}; fc[3] = {t:"Calorimeter’s Constant (Ccalorimeter)",d:"The heat capacity of a calorimeter."}; fc[4] = {t:"Calorimetry",d:"The measurement of the quantity of heat transferred during a physical change or chemical process."}; fc[5] = {t:"Closed System",d:"A system that exchanges energy but not matter with the surroundings."}; fc[6] = {t:"Electrostatic Potential Energy (Eel)",d:"The energy a particle has because of its position relative to another particle; it is directly proportional to the product of the charges of the particles and inversely proportional to the distance between them."}; fc[7] = {t:"Endothermic Process",d:"One in which energy flows from the surroundings into the system."}; fc[8] = {t:"Energy",d:"The capacity to transfer heat or do work."}; fc[9] = {t:"Enthalpy (H)",d:"The sum of the internal energy and the pressure–volume product of a system; H = E + PV."}; fc[10] = {t:"Enthalpy Change (ΔH)",d:"The energy absorbed by the reactants (endothermic reaction) or the energy given off by the products (exothermic reaction) for a reaction carried out at constant pressure."}; fc[11] = {t:"Enthalpy of Reaction (ΔHrxn)",d:"(also called heat of reaction)
The energy absorbed or given off by a chemical reaction."}; fc[12] = {t:"Exothermic Process",d:"One in which energy flows from a system into its surroundings."}; fc[13] = {t:"First Law of Thermodynamics",d:"The energy gained or lost by a system must equal the energy lost or gained by the surroundings."}; fc[14] = {t:"Food Value",d:"The quantity of energy produced when a material consumed by an organism for sustenance is burned completely; it is typically reported in Calories (kilocalories) per gram of food."}; fc[15] = {t:"Formation Reaction",d:"A reaction in which 1 mole of a substance is formed from its component elements in their standard states."}; fc[16] = {t:"Fuel Density",d:"The amount of energy released during the complete combustion of 1 liter of a liquid fuel."}; fc[17] = {t:"Fuel Value",d:"The energy released during complete combustion of 1 g of a substance."}; fc[18] = {t:"Heat",d:"The energy transferred between objects because of a difference in their temperatures."}; fc[19] = {t:"Heat Capacity (CP)",d:"The quantity of energy needed to raise the temperature of an object 1°C at constant pressure."}; fc[20] = {t:"Heat Transfer",d:"The process of heat energy flowing from one object into another."}; fc[21] = {t:"Hess’s Law",d:"The standard enthalpy of reaction ΔHrxn° for a reaction that is the sum of two or more reactions is equal to the sum of the ΔHrxn° values of the constituent reactions; also known as Hess’s law of constant heat of summation."}; fc[22] = {t:"Internal Energy (E)",d:"The sum of all the kinetic and potential energies of all of the components of a system."}; fc[23] = {t:"Isolated System",d:"A system that exchanges neither energy nor matter with the surroundings."}; fc[24] = {t:"Joule (J)",d:"The SI unit of energy; 4.184 J = 1 cal."}; fc[25] = {t:"Kinetic Energy (KE)",d:"The energy of an object in motion due to its mass (m) and its speed (u): KE = (1/2)mu2."}; fc[26] = {t:"Law of Conservation of Energy",d:"Energy cannot be created or destroyed."}; fc[27] = {t:"Molar Heat Capacity (cP)",d:"The energy required at constant pressure to raise the temperature of 1 mole of a substance by 1°C."}; fc[28] = {t:"Molar Heat of Fusion (ΔHfus)",d:"The energy required to convert 1 mole of a solid substance at its melting point into the liquid state."}; fc[29] = {t:"Molar Heat of Vaporization (ΔHvap)",d:"The energy required to convert 1 mole of a liquid substance at its boiling point to the vapor state."}; fc[30] = {t:"Open System",d:"A system that exchanges both energy and matter with the surroundings."}; fc[31] = {t:"Potential Energy (PE)",d:"The energy stored in an object because of its position."}; fc[32] = {t:"Pressure-Volume (P-V) Work",d:"The work associated with the expansion or compression of a gas."}; fc[33] = {t:"Specific Heat (cS)",d:"The energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of a substance 1°C at constant pressure."}; fc[34] = {t:"Standard Conditions",d:"In thermodynamics: a pressure of 1 bar (~1 atm) and some specified temperature, assumed to be 25°C unless otherwise stated; for solutions, a concentration of 1 M is specified."}; fc[35] = {t:"Standard Enthalpy of Formation (ΔHf°)",d:"The enthalpy change of a formation reaction; also known as standard heat of formation or heat of formation."}; fc[36] = {t:"Standard Enthalpy of Reaction (ΔHrxn°)",d:"The energy associated with a reaction that takes place under standard conditions; also known as standard heat of reaction."}; fc[37] = {t:"Standard State",d:"The most stable form of a substance under 1 bar pressure and some specified temperature (25°C unless otherwise stated)."}; fc[38] = {t:"State Function",d:"A property of an entity based solely on its chemical or physical state or both, but not on how it achieved that state."}; fc[39] = {t:"Surroundings",d:"Everything that is not part of the system."}; fc[40] = {t:"System",d:"The part of the universe that is the focus of a thermochemical study."}; fc[41] = {t:"Thermal Energy",d:"The kinetic energy of atoms, ions, and molecules."}; fc[42] = {t:"Thermal Equilibrium",d:"A condition in which temperature is constant throughout a material and no heat flows from one point to another."}; fc[43] = {t:"Thermochemical Equation",d:"The chemical equation of a reaction that includes heat as a reactant or a product."}; fc[44] = {t:"Thermochemistry",d:"The study of the relation between chemical reactions and changes in heat energy."}; fc[45] = {t:"Thermodynamics",d:"The study of energy and its transformations."}; fc[46] = {t:"Work",d:"A form of energy: the energy required to move an object through a given distance."};