How Does Attention Determine What Is Remembered?

  • Visual Attention Is Selective and Serial
  • Auditory Attention Allows Selective Listening
  • Selective Attention Can Operate at Multiple Stages of Processing
  • Critical Thinking Skill: Recognizing When "Change Blindness Blindness" May Be Occurring

What Are the Basic Stages of Memory?

  • Sensory Memory Is Brief
  • Working Memory Is Active
  • Long-Term Memory Is Relatively Permanent

What Are the Different Long-Term Memory Systems?

  • Explicit Memory Involves Conscious Effort
  • Implicit Memory Occurs without Deliberate Effort
  • Prospective Memory Is Remembering to Do Something

How Is Information Organized in Long-Term Memory?

  • Long-Term Storage Is Based on Meaning
  • Schemas Provide an Organizational Framework
  • Information Is Stored in Association Networks
  • Retrieval Cues Provide Access to Long-Term Storage

What Brain Processes Are Involved in Memory?

  • There Has Been Intensive Effort to Identify Memory‚Äôs Physical Location
  • The Medial Temporal Lobes Are Important for Consolidation of Declarative Memories
  • The Frontal Lobes Are Involved in Many Aspects of Memory
  • Neurochemistry Underlies Memory

When Do People Forget?

  • Transience Is Caused by Interference
  • Blocking Is Temporary
  • Absentmindedness Results from Shallow Encoding
  • Amnesia Is a Deficit in Long-Term Memory

How Are Memories Distorted?

  • Flashbulb Memories Can Be Wrong
  • People Make Source Misattributions
  • People Are Bad Eyewitnesses
  • Critical Thinking Skill: Recognizing How the Fallibility of Human Memory Can Lead to Faulty Conclusions
  • People Have False Memories
  • Repressed Memories Are Controversial
  • People Reconstruct Events to Be Consistent
  • Neuroscience May Make It Possible to Distinguish between "True" and "False" Memories

How Can We Improve Learning and Memory?

  • Mnemonics Are Useful Strategies for Learning