Lenses of Anlaysis Home Section Title
Table of Contents Resources Menu
First Lens
Second Lens
Third Lens
Case Study
First Lens
Second Lens
Third Lens
Question Strings
International Security
International Economics
Environmental Issue
Regional Instability


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Introduction: What Are Lenses of Analysis?

Framework: Understanding Lenses


Looking through the First Lens: Individuals as International Actors


–   Human Nature


–   Leaders


Looking through the Second Lens: Effects of the Internal on the International


–   Type of Government


–   Economic Structure and Activity


–   Population Considerations


–   Resource Base


–   Domestic Stability


Looking through the Third Lens: The Shaping Effects of International Structures


–   Anarchy


–   The Balancing of Power


–   International Law and Institutions

Case Studies:

The Kosovo Crisis and the Ultimatum at Rambouillet


Historical Background


–   The Collapse of Yugoslavia


–   Serbia in the 1990s


–   The Problem of Kosovo


–   Prelude and Ultimatum at Rambouillet


First Lens: Milosevic and Albright as Causal Variables


–  Snapshot: Milosevic and Albright Profiles


–  Analysis Albright: Student of History or Coercive Diplomat?


–  Analysis Milosevic: Opportunist or Vulnerable Leader?


Second Lens: Serb Domestic Instability as a Causal Variable


–  Snapshots: Serbian Government, Economy, Population and Stability


–  Analysis: Nationalism as a Double-edged Sword?


–  Analysis: Ultimatum as Opportunity?


Third Lens: International Organizations as a Causal Variable


–  Analysis: International Law and the Serb Decision


–  Analysis: Institutional Restraints on the Use of Force


–  Analysis: Balancing Against U.S. Hegemony: the U.N. and Russia

The Persian Gulf Crisis—A New World Order?


Historical Background


–   Iraq's Grievance


–   Beyond an Arab-to-Arab Dispute


–   Iraq versus the World


–  From Shield to Storm


–  Why War?


First Lens: Bush and Hussein as Causal Variables


–  Introduction


–  George H.W. Bush: A Profile


–  George H.W. Bush: Chief Diplomat


–  George H.W. Bush: Moral Realist?


–  George H.W. Bush: Summary


–  Saddam Hussein: A Profile


–  Saddam Hussein: Fear of Death and the Economic Threat


–  Saddam Hussein: Arab Leader and the Political Opportunity


–  Saddam Hussein: Summary


Second Lens: Domestic Instability as Causal Variable


–  Introduction


–  A Snapshot: Government


–  A Snapshot: Economics and Natural Resources


–  A Snapshot: Population and Public Support


–  Avoiding Iraqi Collapse: A Mutual Interest


Third Lens: Limitations of War as Causal Variables


–  Introduction


–  Analysis: Anarchy and Self-Help


–  Analysis: Limited War for Limited Objectives


–  Analysis: The Great Collective Security Experiment


–  Summary

The Peloponnesian War: Battle of the Titans


Historical Background


–   Introduction


–   The Persian Threat


–   The Titans


–  The Peace Structure?


–   The Prelude to War


–   Battle of the Titans


Looking through the First Lens: Pericles as Causal Variable


–  Snapshot: Pericles Profile


–  Analysis: Pericles: Moderation and War


Looking through the Second Lens: Domestic Instability as Causal Variable


–  Snapshots: Government, Resources and Economies, Social Systems


–  Analysis: The Domestic Divide


Looking through the Third Lens: Bipolarity as Causal Variable


–  Analysis: Bipolarity and the Security Dilemma


–  Analysis: Balancing Act


–  Analysis: Arbitration in Anarchy

Question Strings: Reinforcing Analytical Distinctions


International Security Question String


–  Missile Defense and the ABM Treaty


–  War on Terrorism


International Economics Question String—The Free Trade Area of America


Environmental Issue Question String—The Kyoto Protocol on Greenhouse Emissions


Regional Instability Question String—Macedonia


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Credits Copyright 2001 W. W. Norton & Company Copyright 2001 W. W. Norton & Company