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Updates Winter/Spring 2008

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This is the second update for the 2007-08 academic year accompanying American Foreign Policy: The Dynamics of Choice in the 21st Century (3rd edition, W.W. Norton: section titles and page numbers are geared to the book).

We offer it as a supplemental tool providing ongoing information and references on topics featured in the book. This is not intended to be comprehensive, but hopefully helpful for colleagues and students. You may also want to consult the Fall 2007 website update.

Chapter 6

  • Foreign Policy Strategy for a New Era (pp. 259-280)

Foreign Affairs has continued publishing foreign policy articles by the major presidential candidates: Barack Obama and Mitt Romney (July/August 2007 edition), Rudolph Giuliani and John Edwards (September/October 2007),  John McCain and Hillary Clinton (November/December 2007), and Michael Huckabee and Bill Richardson (January/February 2008).  You can also go to candidates’ websites for more information.

You may also find useful my recent article: Bruce W. Jentleson, “America’s Global Role after Bush”, Survival (Autumn 2007), published by the London-based International Institute of Strategic Studies (IISS). 

  • Nuclear Deterrence (pp. 269-70)

While nuclear proliferation (additional nations acquiring nuclear weapons) gets more attention, Cold War-era issues of nuclear arms control remain on the agenda. A high impact opinion-editorial by Henry Kissinger and other major figures advocating for major reductions in nuclear weapons appeared in the Wall Street Journal in January 2007.

  • United Nations (pp. 273-277)

The new Secretary-General, Ban Ki-moon delivered his first major Address opening the September 2007 annual meeting of the General Assembly.

  • Presidential-Congressional Relations (pp. 281-287)

Iraq has continued to be the main presidential-congressional war powers issue. In September 2007 there was much build-up to the congressional testimony of General David Petraeus. Here’s the link to the hearing held by the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 9/11/07.

  • Interest Groups (294-96)

The Jewish-American lobby often is cited as one of the most influential interest groups in foreign policy politics. The recent book, The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy, by John J. Mearsheimer and Stephen M. Walt intensified this debate. For critical reviews see Jeffrey Goldberg, “The Usual Suspect,” in The New Republic, and Walter Russell Mead, “Jerusalem Syndrome” in Foreign Affairs.

  • News Media (pp. 296-98)

The Project for Excellence in Journalism recently released its “State of the News Media 2007” Report. It deals with a range of issues of which the media’s role in foreign policy politics is one.

  • Public Opinion (pp. 298-303)

 “Global Unease with Major World Powers” (June 2007) is another in a series of studies of global public opinion done by the Pew Research Center.

A Washington Post-ABC News poll conducted December 6-9, 2007 updates earlier polls on Iraq, terrorism and other foreign policy issues.

For an  interesting analysis of trends in public opinion that run deeper than Iraq and the Bush foreign policy, see Charles A. Kupchan and Peter L. Trubowitz, “Dead Center: The Demise of Liberal Internationalism in the United States,” International Security  32:2 (Fall 2007).

Chapter 7

  • Russia (pp. 310-321)

See the series of articles, “Resurgent Russia,” in The Washington Quarterly, Spring 2007. On Russia and democracy see the link under Chapter 11.

  • China (pp. 321-327)

The China program of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace is among those providing frequent and insightful studies on China.

  • India (pp. 337-339)

The Washington Quarterly also did an interesting series on “India Rising” in its Summer 2007 edition, including the following articles:

Is India, or Will It Be, a Responsible International Stakeholder?” by Xenia Dormandy.

The Dragon and the Elephant: Chinese-Indian Relations in the 21st Century” by Jing Dong Yuan.

India and Iran: New Delhi’s Balancing Act” by C. Christine Fair.

  • WMD Proliferation: Iran (pp. 344-345)

Much controversy was set off in December 2007 by public release of the National Intelligence Estimate, Iran: Nuclear Intentions and Capabilities, conducted by U.S. intelligence agencies. For a feel for the varying interpretations and “spins”, see this article from Time magazine.

Chapter 8

  • 9-11 and The War on Terrorism (pp. 363-372)

In the Center for American Progress’ third Terrorism Index, published August 20, 2007, more than 100 of America’s most respected foreign-policy experts believe the world is growing more dangerous, the national security strategy is in disrepair, and the war in Iraq is alarmingly off course. 

The most recent Congressionally-mandated report from the U.S. Department of State, “Country Reports on Terrorism 2006”, was released in April 2007 and provides a record of all countries and groups involved in international terrorism. 

For a useful assessment of the situation in Afghanistan, see “U.S. Notes Limited Progress in Afghan War” (Washington Post, November 25, 2007).

A number of valuable books have been published recently on terrorism, including:

    • David Cortright and George A. Lopez, eds., Uniting Against Terror: Cooperative Nonmilitary Responses to the Global Terrorist Threat (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2007)
    • Bruce Hoffmann, Inside Terrorism, 2nd edition (New York: Columbia University Press, 2006)
    • Alan B. Krueger, What Makes a Terrorist? Economics and the Roots of Terrorism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007)
    • John Mueller, Overblown: How and Politicians and the Terrorism Threat Industry Inflate National Security Threats, and Why We Believe Them (New York: Free Press, 2006).
  • Iraq (pp. 374-389)

This is the hardest issue on which to single out sources. Articles and studies on Iraq abound. For a range of views consult the websites of the Heritage Foundation, the Center for American Progress and the Institute for Policy Studies.

  • The Arab-Israeli Conflict (pp. 390-397)

The Annapolis conference held in late November 2007 was billed as a new start on the Arab-Israeli peace process. For analysis at the time see a symposium held by the Council on Foreign Relations. Reports on whether progress is being made should continue to be widely available in the media, from think tanks, and in journals.

  • Foreign Policy Politics: National Security and Terrorism (pp. 397-404)

On August 22, 2007, Jack Goldsmith, a Harvard law professor who served as head of the Office of Legal Counsel in the Bush Justice Department, was interviewed regarding his new book, The Terror Presidency, about his experience inside the Bush administration and the problematic legal foundations underpinning some of the war on terror’s policies.  (The link is multimedia with text and video).   

Chapter 9

  • Never Again or Yet Again?

A new bipartisan Genocide Prevention Task Force has been created with former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and former Secretary of Defense William Cohen as co-chairs. Bruce Jentleson is serving as a member of the Expert Advisory Group on Preventive Diplomacy. The Task Force will issue a report in December 2008.

  • Darfur (pp. 446-450)

The September 2007 briefing paper The Genocide in Darfur, published by, updates developments in the genocide in Darfur. The Enough project publishes ongoing papers; see, for example, Don’t Quit Now: Bringing the Darfur Genocide to an End. The International Crisis Group is another valuable source; see their November 2007 report outlining Darfur’s “new security reality”.

Chapter 10

  • The Doha Round (pp. 472-473)

For the latest information and contrasting perspectives, take a look at the websites of the World Trade Organization and Oxfam International.

  • Global Poverty and Sustainable Development (pp. 479-487)

The Human Development Report 2007/2008, “Fighting Climate Change: Human Solidarity in a Divided World,” focuses on the effects of climate change on global poverty and development.

  • Global AIDS (pp. 489-490)

The World AIDS Campaign website features information about the epidemic and worldwide responses.  The World AIDS Day 2007 Fact Sheet outlines the US’ national and global strategies to fight HIV/AIDS.

  • Global Environment (pp. 491-495)

Former Vice President Al Gore won the Nobel Peace Prize for his work on fighting global climate change. See his acceptance speech delivered in Oslo, Norway onon December 10, 2007.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, co-winner with Vice President Gore of the Nobel, released its Fourth Assessment Report on November 17, 2007.

Chapter 11

  • Russia and Democracy (p. 510)

The Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, “Russia’s December 2007 Legislative Election: Outcome and Implications,” discusses the campaign and results of Russia’s December 2, 2007 election, which has received strong international criticism as a setback to democratization.

  • Pakistan and Democracy (pp. 525-526)

Our discussion in American Foreign Policy of Pakistan as a case that demonstrates the tensions and trade-offs between Principles and Power has been reinforced by recent developments. The New York Times article linked here also has a video of interviews with Pakistanis about their views of General/President Musharraf, the proclamation of martial law, elections and related issues. The International Republican Institute, a U.S NGO, conducted a related poll. The interviews and polling were conducted even before the December 27, 2007 assassination of opposition leader and former prime minister Benazir Bhutto.