Chapter 5: BASIC ARGUMENT ANALYSIS
- Self-Quiz -


Multiple Choice:
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No. of Questions = 28

In this exercise, you will be given a short argument to read, followed by one or more numbered statements. Your task is to identify what role the statement plays in the argument.

After each statement, indicate:
Premise; if it is a premise of the argument;
Conclusion; if it is the conclusion of the argument;
Intermediate; if it is an intermediate conclusion;
or
Assumed; if it is an assumed premise.


1 (1) Since refrigerators consume about seven percent of all electricity in the country, (2) we could achieve a significant reduction in electricity consumption if (3) we all stopped eating.
1) Refrigerators consume about seven percent of all electricity in the country.
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
2 (1) The embryo inside a hen's egg must receive oxygen to survive and develop. (2) So despite the apparent solidity of the eggshell, it must have holes large enough to allow the passage of oxygen molecules.
1) An eggshell must have holes large enough to allow the passage of oxygen molecules
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
3 (1) Since there are probably at least ten million stars in our galaxy that have planets capable of supporting life, (2) it is likely that life has evolved on at least some of them.
1) It is likely that life has evolved on some other planets in our galaxy.
2) There are probably at least ten million stars in our galaxy that have planets capable of supporting life.
Identify statement 1).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
4 (1) Since there are probably at least ten million stars in our galaxy that have planets capable of supporting life, (2) it is likely that life has evolved on at least some of them.
1) It is likely that life has evolved on some other planets in our galaxy.
2) There are probably at least ten million stars in our galaxy that have planets capable of supporting life.
Identify statement 2).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
5 (1) The U.S. should devote more money to space exploration. (2) With the speedy growth of the world's population, and (3) the drain it places on our resources, it is inevitable that we will some day have to turn to space as a habitat.
1) The growth of the world's population is speedy.
2) The growth of the world's population places a drain on our resources.
Identify statement 1).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
6 (1) The U.S. should devote more money to space exploration. (2) With the speedy growth of the world's population, and (3) the drain it places on our resources, it is inevitable that we will some day have to turn to space as a habitat.
1) The growth of the world's population is speedy.
2) The growth of the world's population places a drain on our resources.
Identify statement 2).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
7 (1) It is dangerous for a country to base its economy on a single good. (2) When the tin market collapsed, Bolivia's economy fell into a depression from which it has not yet recovered. (3) In the same way, many of the oil-producing nations had severe financial problems when the price of oil fell.
1) Bolivia's economy fell into a depression when the tin market collapsed.
2) It is dangerous for a country to base its economy on a single good.
Identify statement 1).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
8 (1) It is dangerous for a country to base its economy on a single good. (2) When the tin market collapsed, Bolivia's economy fell into a depression from which it has not yet recovered. (3) In the same way, many of the oil-producing nations had severe financial problems when the price of oil fell.
1) Bolivia's economy fell into a depression when the tin market collapsed.
2) It is dangerous for a country to base its economy on a single good.
Identify statement 2).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
9 (1) When the track is slippery and (2) muddy, (3) the favored horse rarely wins, so (4) you shouldn't bet on it.
1) When the track is slippery and muddy, you shouldn't bet on the favored horse.
2) When the track is slippery and muddy, the favored horse rarely wins.
Identify statement 1).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
10 (1) When the track is slippery and (2) muddy, (3) the favored horse rarely wins, so (4) you shouldn't bet on it.
1) When the track is slippery and muddy, you shouldn't bet on the favored horse.
2) When the track is slippery and muddy, the favored horse rarely wins.
Identify statement 2).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
11 (1) A large share of the U.S. defense budget goes to pay for defending our allies, especially Japan and Western Europe. Since (2) these countries now rival the U.S. in economic wealth, (3) they should pay a larger share for their own defense.
1) Japan and Western Europe rival the U.S. in economic wealth.
2) Japan and Western Europe should pay a larger share for their own defense.
Identify statement 1).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
12 (1) A large share of the U.S. defense budget goes to pay for defending our allies, especially Japan and Western Europe. Since (2) these countries now rival the U.S. in economic wealth, (3) they should pay a larger share for their own defense.
1) Japan and Western Europe rival the U.S. in economic wealth.
2) Japan and Western Europe should pay a larger share for their own defense.
Identify statement 2).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
13 (1) An IQ test may be an accurate measure of certain intellectual capacities, but a high score has little connection with a person's prospects for success and happiness in life. Because (2) it measures only academic cognitive skills, (3) it does not measure other traits connected with happiness and success, such as (4) emotional maturity, (5) ability to work with people, (6) ambition, (7) willingness to take risks, or (8) "street smarts."
1) An IQ test does not measure emotional maturity.
2) An IQ test does not measure non-academic traits connected with success and happiness.
Identify statement 1).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
14 (1) An IQ test may be an accurate measure of certain intellectual capacities, but a high score has little connection with a person's prospects for success and happiness in life. Because (2) it measures only academic cognitive skills, (3) it does not measure other traits connected with happiness and success, such as (4) emotional maturity, (5) ability to work with people, (6) ambition, (7) willingness to take risks, or (8) "street smarts."
1) An IQ test does not measure emotional maturity.
2) An IQ test does not measure non-academic traits connected with success and happiness.
Identify statement 2).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
15 (1) It is likely that 3-1/2 inch diskettes will replace 5-1/4 inch diskettes in the personal computer market. Because (2) they are encased in plastic, (3) 3-1/2 inch diskettes are sturdier, and (4) the risk of fingerprint damage is less.
1) 3-1/2 inch diskettes are sturdier. 2) 3-1/2 inch diskettes have less risk of fingerprint damage.
I
Identify statement 1).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
16 (1) It is likely that 3-1/2 inch diskettes will replace 5-1/4 inch diskettes in the personal computer market. Because (2) they are encased in plastic, (3) 3-1/2 inch diskettes are sturdier, and (4) the risk of fingerprint damage is less.
1) 3-1/2 inch diskettes are sturdier.
2) 3-1/2 inch diskettes have less risk of fingerprint damage.
Identify statement 2).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
17 (1) A fundamental principle of physics is that heat flows from a warmer region to a cooler one. Since (2) the temperature of the earth's crust increases with depth, (3) there must be a flow of heat outward from the interior.
1) Heat flows from a warmer region to a cooler one.
2) The temperature of the earth's crust increases with depth.
dentify statement 1).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
18 (1) A fundamental principle of physics is that heat flows from a warmer region to a cooler one. Since (2) the temperature of the earth's crust increases with depth, (3) there must be a flow of heat outward from the interior.
1) Heat flows from a warmer region to a cooler one.
2) The temperature of the earth's crust increases with depth.
Identify statement 2).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
19 (1) The government should not interfere with people unless their actions affect others. (2) Therefore, it should not pass mandatory seat belt laws.
1) The government should not pass mandatory seat belt laws.
2) Using or failing to use seat belts does not affect others.
Identify statement 1).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
20 (1) The government should not interfere with people unless their actions affect others. (2) Therefore, it should not pass mandatory seat belt laws.
1) The government should not pass mandatory seat belt laws.
2) Using or failing to use seat belts does not affect others.
Identify statement 2).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
21 (1) Instead of the present system of public education, the government should give parents vouchers, which they can spend at the schools of their choice, whether public or private. (2) This would give parents more control over the education of their children. (3) It would also promote competition among schools, and (4) thus improve their quality.
1) A voucher system would promote competition among schools.
2) A voucher system would improve the quality of schools.
Identify statement 1).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
22 (1) Instead of the present system of public education, the government should give parents vouchers, which they can spend at the schools of their choice, whether public or private. (2) This would give parents more control over the education of their children. (3) It would also promote competition among schools, and (4) thus improve their quality.
1) A voucher system would promote competition among schools.
2) A voucher system would improve the quality of schools.
Identify statement 2).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
23 (1) By the terms of the 1987 treaty on intermediate-range nuclear forces, the U.S. and the Soviet Union must destroy medium-range missiles-- (2) but not the warheads, (3), which may therefore be placed on other missiles. (4) The missiles subject to the treaty, moreover, represent only a fraction, about 4%, of nuclear stockpiles. (5) The treaty was therefore not a significant step toward world peace.
1) Warheads from medium range missiles may be placed on other missiles.
2) Medium-range missiles represent about 4% of nuclear stockpiles
Identify statement 1).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
24 (1) By the terms of the 1987 treaty on intermediate-range nuclear forces, the U.S. and the Soviet Union must destroy medium-range missiles-- (2) but not the warheads, (3), which may therefore be placed on other missiles. (4) The missiles subject to the treaty, moreover, represent only a fraction, about 4%, of nuclear stockpiles. (5) The treaty was therefore not a significant step toward world peace.
1) Warheads from medium range missiles may be placed on other missiles.
2) Medium-range missiles represent about 4% of nuclear stockpiles
Identify statement 2).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
25 (1) Liberal arts colleges should have distribution requirements, (2) because the purpose of a liberal arts education is to acquaint students with the major areas of human knowledge. (3) In addition, few students can predict all the kinds of knowledge they will need throughout the entire course of their careers, (4) so it is safest to get a broad exposure to many different areas.
1) Distribution requirements will help acquaint students with the major areas of human knowledge.
2) Liberal arts colleges should have distribution requirements
Identify statement 1).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
26 (1) Liberal arts colleges should have distribution requirements, (2) because the purpose of a liberal arts education is to acquaint students with the major areas of human knowledge. (3) In addition, few students can predict all the kinds of knowledge they will need throughout the entire course of their careers, (4) so it is safest to get a broad exposure to many different areas.
1) Distribution requirements will help acquaint students with the major areas of human knowledge.
2) Liberal arts colleges should have distribution requirements
Identify statement 2).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
27 (1) A professional thief can steal virtually any vehicle. (2) But the longer it takes him, the more likely he is to be caught. (3) Thieves know this, and therefore (4) look for cars they can get into quickly. (5) So automobile owners should take measures, such as (6) locking their doors and (7) taking the keys, that will make theft time-consuming.
1) Thieves look for cars they can get into quickly.
2) Automobile owners should take steps that will make theft time-consuming.
Identify statement 1).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed
28 (1) A professional thief can steal virtually any vehicle. (2) But the longer it takes him, the more likely he is to be caught. (3) Thieves know this, and therefore (4) look for cars they can get into quickly. (5) So automobile owners should take measures, such as (6) locking their doors and (7) taking the keys, that will make theft time-consuming.
1) Thieves look for cars they can get into quickly.
2) Automobile owners should take steps that will make theft time-consuming.
Identify statement 2).
a) Premise
b) Conclusion
c) Intermediate
d) Assumed


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