## Chapter 17: STATISTICAL REASONING - Self-Quiz -

Multiple Choice:
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No. of Questions = 5

In this exercise, you will be given short statistical arguments moving from correlation to causality to read. Your task is to identify the fallacy committed.

 1. I started eating a bran muffin for breakfast and my cholesterol level dropped. It must be because of the bran. a) There are confounding variables. b) It is unclear which variable is the cause and which the effect. c) It is unreasonable to generalize from the sample actually studied to a larger study. d) The variables actually measured are not good stand-ins for the variables of interest. 2. We hear a lot of talk that families are not close any more. Well, that is not true. A study just released showed that most people live within 20 miles of their immediate family. a) There are confounding variables. b) It is unclear which variable is the cause and which the effect. c) It is unreasonable to generalize from the sample actually studied to a larger study. d) The variables actually measured are not good stand-ins for the variables of interest. 3. More people who have cancer are depressed than those who do not have cancer. Thus, depression is the cause of cancer. a) There are confounding variables. b) It is unclear which variable is the cause and which the effect. c) It is unreasonable to generalize from the sample actually studied to a larger study. d) The variables actually measured are not good stand-ins for the variables of interest. 4. More people than ever believe in God, according to a survey conducted on the front steps of the First Baptist Church on Sunday morning. a) There are confounding variables. b) It is unclear which variable is the cause and which the effect. c) It is unreasonable to generalize from the sample actually studied to a larger study. d) The variables actually measured are not good stand-ins for the variables of interest. 5. Whenever there is a full moon, the emergency room is crowded with injuries and accidents. The full moon must cause people to act crazy. a) There are confounding variables. b) It is unclear which variable is the cause and which the effect. c) It is unreasonable to generalize from the sample actually studied to a larger study. d) The variables actually measured are not good stand-ins for the variables of interest.

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