Chapter 16:
ARGUMENT BY ANALOGY
- Self-Quiz -


Multiple Choice:
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No. of Questions = 34

In this exercise, you will be given an analogy and a part of the reconstruction of the argument based on the analogy. You are asked to identify where this part of the reconstruction fits into the argument according to the following pattern:

A. One or both of the items being compared
B. A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
C. A consequence of the similarity between the two items
D. The example used to form the generalization
E. The generalization based upon the example
F. The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
G. The conclusion of the argument

1 California implemented the "Three Strikes and You're Out" law and the crime rate dropped. Therefore, the crime rate in New York should also drop since they just implemented the same law.
New York has the "Three Strikes and You're Out" law.
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
2 California implemented the "Three Strikes and You're Out" law and the crime rate dropped. Therefore, the crime rate in New York should also drop since they just implemented the same law.
New York has the "Three Strikes and You're Out" law.
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
3 California implemented the "Three Strikes and You're Out" law and the crime rate dropped. Therefore, the crime rate in New York should also drop since they just implemented the same law.
New York should see a drop in the crime rate.
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
4 California implemented the "Three Strikes and You're Out" law and the crime rate dropped. Therefore, the crime rate in New York should also drop since they just implemented the same law.
When the "Three Strikes and You're Out" law is implemented, the crime rate goes down.
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
5 California implemented the "Three Strikes and You're Out" law and the crime rate dropped. Therefore, the crime rate in New York should also drop since they just implemented the same law.
California has the "Three Strikes and You're Out" law, and the crime rate dropped.
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
6 As automobiles are ranked in terms of their performances, so should public schools, since both are commodities for which people pay money.
Public schools should be ranked in terms of their performances.
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
7 As automobiles are ranked in terms of their performances, so should public schools, since both are commodities for which people pay money.
Automobiles are commodities, and they are ranked in terms of their performances.
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
8 As automobiles are ranked in terms of their performances, so should public schools, since both are commodities for which people pay money.
All commodities can be ranked in terms of their performances.
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
9 As automobiles are ranked in terms of their performances, so should public schools, since both are commodities for which people pay money.
are commodities for which people pay money
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
10 Automobiles are ranked in terms of their performances, so should public schools, since both are commodities for which people pay money.
Automobiles and public schools
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
11 People who do not accept the Religion of the Divine Light should be forced to do so for their own good just like a delirious person should be forced to accept what is for his/her own good. In neither case are the individuals aware of what is for their own good.
People who do not accept the Religion of the Divine Light
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
12 People who do not accept the Religion of the Divine Light should be forced to do so for their own good just like a delirious person should be forced to accept what is for his/her own good. In neither case are the individuals aware of what is for their own good.
All individuals who are not aware of what is for their own good should be forced to accept what is for their own good.
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
13 People who do not accept the Religion of the Divine Light should be forced to do so for their own good just like a delirious person should be forced to accept what is for his/her own good. In neither case are the individuals aware of what is for their own good.
Delirious people are not aware of what is for their own good, but are forced to accept what is for their own good.
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
14 Just as it is not a crime to change the course of a river, so it should not be a crime to kill oneself by changing the course of one's own blood. Both are interferences in the natural course of events.
It is not a crime to change the course of one's blood and kill oneself.
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
15 Just as it is not a crime to change the course of a river, so it should not be a crime to kill oneself by changing the course of one's own blood. Both are interferences in the natural course of events.
Changing the course of a river is interfering in the natural course of events, and it isn't a crime.
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
16 Just as it is not a crime to change the course of a river, so it should not be a crime to kill oneself by changing the course of one's own blood. Both are interferences in the natural course of events.
being interferences in the natural course of events
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
17 A civil war is like a fever in a body in that both are unnatural conditions. Thus, just as a fever should be avoided, so should civil war.
All unnatural conditions should be avoided.
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
18 A civil war is like a fever in a body in that both are unnatural conditions. Thus, just as a fever should be avoided, so should civil war.
Fevers are unnatural conditions, and they should be avoided.
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
19 A civil war is like a fever in a body in that both are unnatural conditions. Thus, just as a fever should be avoided, so should civil war.
Civil war should be avoided.
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
20 During periods of crisis, the President should be given special powers because in a crisis the Ship of State is like a ship in a storm. Under such conditions, the captain should have unlimited authority.
Ships that are in a storm are in a crisis, and they have captains with unlimited power.
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
21 During periods of crisis, the President should be given special powers because in a crisis the Ship of State is like a ship in a storm. Under such conditions, the captain should have unlimited authority.
The state is currently in a crisis.
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
22 During periods of crisis, the President should be given special powers because in a crisis the Ship of State is like a ship in a storm. Under such conditions, the captain should have unlimited authority.
being in a crisis
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
23 Negotiating is like playing poker. Just as to be successful in poker one should not let one's adversary read one's state of mind, so to be successful in negotiating one should not let the other party know what one is thinking.
Negotiating
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
24 Negotiating is like playing poker. Just as to be successful in poker one should not let one's adversary read one's state of mind, so to be successful in negotiating one should not let the other party know what one is thinking.
Good poker players don't let their adversary know their state of mind, and they are successful.
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
25 Negotiating is like playing poker. Just as to be successful in poker a good poker player should not let his adversary read his state of mind, so to be a good negotiator one should not let the other party know what one is thinking.
A good negotiator should not let others know what he/she is thinking.
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
26 Life is like any game in being a competition among opponents. Those who cheat at sports win, so those who cheat in life will win.
being a competition among opponents
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
27 Life is like any sport in being a competition among opponents. Those who cheat at sports win, so those who cheat in life will win.
Sports are competitions among opponents, and those who cheat win.
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
28 Life is like any sport in being a competition among opponents. Those who cheat at sports win, so those who cheat in life will win.
All competitions among opponents are won by those who cheat.
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
29 Life is like any game in being a competition among opponents. Those who cheat at sports win, so those who cheat in life will win.
Those who cheat at life win.
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
30 The universe is like a clock in that everything that occurs in it happens in a uniform and mechanical manner. Thus, just as a clock has a maker, so does the universe.
Whatever occurs in a uniform and mechanical manner has a maker
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
31 The universe is like a clock in that everything that occurs in it happens in a uniform and mechanical manner. Thus, just as a clock has a maker, so does the universe.
the universe
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
32 The universe is like a clock in that everything that occurs in it happens in a uniform and mechanical manner. Thus, just as a clock has a maker, so does the universe.
The universe has a maker.
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
33 George is an excellent governor because he can mediate among conflicting groups. Therefore, he will make a good president.
being a governor and being a president
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument
34 George is an excellent governor because he can mediate among conflicting groups. Therefore, he will make a good president.
George is an excellent governor, and he can mediate among conflicting groups.
a) One or both of the items being compared
b) A relevant similarity between the two items being compared
c) A consequence of the similarity of the two items
d) The example used to form the generalization
e) The generalization based on the example
f) The minor premise of the deductive part of the argument
g) The conclusion of the argument


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