Generalizing is an effort to identify connections among traits.
The term "connection," though, is pretty vague. What sort of
relationship are we talking about? In most cases, we are referring to
The term "causality" covers a very broad range. Different types
of causality can be found in different regions of nature and
human life, and the various branches of science have developed
specialized techniques for studying causality in their own areas.
However, we are going to look at a general-purpose technique that
will help us identify and analyze causal relationships of any
The basis of this technique is a distinction between necessary
and sufficient conditions.
A is a necessary condition for B when B cannot exist or occur
without A. A is a sufficient condition for B when A is enough to guarantee that B exists or occurs.