Chapter 15:
INDUCTIVE GENERALIZATIONS
- Practice, Part B -


Multiple Choice:
Click on the button next to the answer you wish to select. Your results will be displayed immediately in the question's text box.

No. of Questions = 34

In this exercises, you will be given evidence for a causal relationship, and asked to identify which of Mill's methods is being used. The methods include:

Agreement
Difference
Joint
Variations
Residues

There are two levels of difficulty: (a) questions 1-18 and (b) questions 19-33.

1 I used to be able to work all night, but I can't anymore. I'm still as interested in what I'm doing, and my health is still good. It must be age.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
2 I get nausea whenever I eat ice cream. Since the same thing happens when I drink milk or eat cheese, the nausea must be a reaction to milk products.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
3 Annette has a sunny disposition, but she's unusually cheerful today. She must have received some good news.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
4 Honesty really is the best policy. All of the people I know who have been truly successful, year in and year out, regardless of their occupation, have succeeded by honest methods.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
5 People like La Mama's for the spaghetti. Every Wednesday, when it's the special, you need a reservation to get in. They have other specials on other nights, and you can walk right in.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
6 When you burn oak in a fireplace or wood stove, you don't get much of a deposit of creosote in the chimney. The same is true of maple, hickory, and ash, all of which are hardwoods. Pine and spruce, however, which are softwoods, leave a lot of creosote. So the amount of creosote deposited depends on whether the wood is hard or soft.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
7 The media can really make or break a candidate. The less coverage someone gets, the lower his standing in the polls.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
8 Newspaper turns yellow, not because of exposure to the air per se, but because of exposure to sunlight. If you put one newspaper in a dark closet and another near a window, the second one will yellow but the first won't.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
9 If you compare a four-wheel drive vehicle with a comparable two-wheel drive model--whether it's a sedan, a utility vehicle, or a pickup--it's clear that the four-wheel drive improves traction.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
10 He loved me for my money, not for myself. When I lost everything in the stock market crash, he left me.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
11 If the past is any guide, the Soviet Union can be counted to violate the new arms control agreement. They have violated every treaty they've ever signed.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
12 Did you see how excited Tom got when his frog won the jumping contest? He was positively giddy. There must be something else going on; winning the contest couldn't make him that happy.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
13 It's all she can do to get out of bed in the morning. It's not that she's tired. On weekends, she's up at the crack of dawn. She must be bored with her job.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
14 My interest in the subject matter is the most important factor in my grades at school. I got A's in the subjects I found most interesting, B's in the so-so classes, and the only C I got was in a course that bored me stiff.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
15 The desire for art must be part of human nature, because every culture, regardless of differences in language, religion, economy, or wealth, has some form of art.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
16 What the protesters really want is media coverage. They demonstrate as long as the TV cameras are there. But once the newsmen leave for another big story, the protesters go home.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
17 Psychologists studying child development have compared children in day care centers with children raised at home by a parent. Despite similarities among families in economic status and other factors, the day care children were found to be more prone to aggressive behavior.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
18 Gary Hart's affair with Donna Rice was obviously his undoing. Before it was known, he was the front runner. Afterwards, he was not a serious candidate.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
19 The length of time an animal takes to mature to its adult form is a function of its intelligence. Animals with primitive nervous systems, like reptiles, mature rapidly. Mammals, which are more intelligent, mature more slowly. And humans, the species with the highest intelligence, do not become adults until nearly twenty years of age.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
20 Powerful countries go into decline when they attempt to exert military power beyond what their economies can support. This was the common factor in the decline of the Roman Empire, Spain in the seventeenth century, and Britain more recently.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
21 Congress has lost control of the budget process; it cannot pass a budget on schedule. Every year, no matter what other legislation Congress is dealing with, during election years and off years alike, they wait until the last minute to pass a makeshift continuing resolution.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
22 Punishment deters crime. Other things being equal, states with tougher penalties have lower crime rates.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
23 The deeper you go under water the greater the water pressure. You can see this when you go skin diving. When your head is just under the surface, there's very little pressure on your eardrums. Five feet down, the pressure is very noticeable, and at ten feet it can be painful.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
24 I find that I enjoy Atlantic City more than Los Vegas. They both have gambling, and they both have shows. But Atlantic City has the ocean. That must be why I like it.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
25 The so-called "learning curve" expresses the relationship between experience and facility at a task. Across a wide variety of tasks, the more often one has performed it, the faster and more accurate one becomes.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
26 Exposure to environmental carcinogens certainly increases the chance of cancer. But it cannot fully explain the incidence of cancer, so genetic factors must also play a role.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
27 Moss is harming the roots of trees in the forests of Europe and North America. In 100 dying forests, geographers found that the feeder roots of trees were dead where they were covered by moss, yet just a few inches beyond the moss, the roots were healthy.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
28 My St. Bernard has hip dysplasia--the problem in the hip joint that makes a dog have a pinched sort of gait. I've seen the same problem in other large breeds like Great Danes or German Shepherds, but never in poodles or terriers. So hip dysplasia must be related to the size of a breed.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
29 People who are overweight have a higher risk of heart disease than do thinner people. But the distribution of weight is also a factor. Even among heavy people, those who carry their weight around their waist have a higher risk than do those who carry their weight around their hips.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
30 Since 1950, there have been three periods in which an unusually large number of icebergs were found in the North Atlantic: 1957-59, 1972-74, and 1983-85. Each period was preceded by an "El Nino” current in the Pacific. Somehow, El Nino must affect iceberg activity.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
31 There's a clear connection between the number of musicians playing together in a performance and the need for a leader to coordinate them. A symphony orchestra always has a conductor, while a trio or quartet never does. In between, an average-sized band sometimes has a bandleader, but not always.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
32 There's a natural cycle in weapons of war: every new offensive weapon spawns a new defense against it. Armor was invented to protect against hand weapons, radar and anti-aircraft guns to protect against bombers, depth charges to protect against submarines.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
33 The Pima Indians of Arizona have an unusually high incidence of diabetes. It is known that if a mother had diabetes while pregnant, the child has an increased risk of the disease; and many Pima mothers are diabetic. But this does not fully explain the rate of the disease. Some other factor must be at work.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues
34 The chief executive or Prime Minister in a parliamentary system of government can change government policy more easily than can the President in our system, who may not have majority support in the legislature. Margaret Thatcher in England, with its parliamentary system, and Ronald Reagan were both strong advocates of privatizing government services, but Thatcher was much more successful at it than Reagan was.
a) Agreement
b) Difference
c) Joint
d) Variations
e) Residues



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