Chapter 15:
INDUCTIVE GENERALIZATIONS
- Practice, Part A -


Multiple Choice:
Click on the button next to the answer you wish to select. Your results will be displayed immediately in the question's text box.

No. of Questions= 30

In this exercise, you will be given a generalization, followed by one or more numbered statements. Your task is to determine whether the numbered statements provide inductive support for the generalization.

Indicate one of the following for each statement:

Confirms if the statement confirms the generalization;
Disconfirms if it disconfirms the generalization;
Irrelevant if it is irrelevant to the generalization.

The numbered statements may give confirming or disconfirming instances for the generalization, or provide information that affects the plausibility of the generalization.

There are two levels of difficulty. Level (a) questions 1-11, includes only universal generalization. Level (b) questions 12-17 includes statistical evidence.


1 Generalization: Baldness runs in families.
1) Joe is bald, and so was his father
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
2 Generalization: All geniuses are eccentric.
1) Isaac Newton, who discovered the law of gravity, was eccentric
2) Felix Mendelssohn, the great nineteenth-century composer, was not eccentric.
What type of support does statement 1) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
3 Generalization: All geniuses are eccentric.
1) Isaac Newton, who discovered the law of gravity, was eccentric
2) Felix Mendelssohn, the great nineteenth-century composer, was not eccentric.
What type of support does statement 2) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
4 Generalization: All tropical countries have cuisines that make heavy use of spicy foods.
1) Thai food is very spicy
2) Spicy foods cause perspiration, which helps cool the body.
What type of support does statement 1) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
5 Generalization: All tropical countries have cuisines that make heavy use of spicy foods.
1) Thai food is very spicy
2) Spicy foods cause perspiration, which helps cool the body.
What type of support does statement 2) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
6 Generalization: Countries that do not have a single, shared language do not produce great literature.
1) Switzerland, which has three official languages, has never produced great literature.
What type of support does statement 1) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
7 Generalization: The maximum human life span is about 120 years.
1) My nephew died in a car accident at age 10
2) There is no reliable record of a human living past 120 years.
What type of support does statement 1) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
8 Generalization: The maximum human life span is about 120 years.
1) My nephew died in a car accident at age 10
2) There is no reliable record of a human living past 120 years.
What type of support does statement 2) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
9 Generalization: Laws that limit the amount of money that can be spent in political campaigns usually help incumbents.
1) In the 1970s, campaign reform laws were passed that limited the amount of money that could be spent in a political campaign. In the time that has elapsed since the passage of these laws, the percentage of incumbents who have won reelection has increased.
What type of support does statement 1) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
10 Generalization: Predatory animals have eyes in the front of their heads, with overlapping visual fields.
1) All felines have eyes in the front of their heads
2) Horses have eyes on the sides of their heads, with visual fields that do not overlap.
What type of support does statement 1) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
11 Generalization: Predatory animals have eyes in the front of their heads, with overlapping visual fields.
1) All felines have eyes in the front of their heads
2) Horses have eyes on the sides of their heads, with visual fields that do not overlap.
What type of support does statement 2) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
12 Generalization: Professors with tenure don't work as hard as professors without tenure.
1) The possibility of losing one's job is an incentive to work hard
2) Professor Smith, who is tenured, works 14 hours a day.
What type of support does statement 1) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
13 Generalization: Professors with tenure don't work as hard as professors without tenure.
1) The possibility of losing one's job is an incentive to work hard
2) Professor Smith, who is tenured, works 14 hours a day.
What type of support does statement 2) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
14 Generalization: People are most likely to feel sympathy for those animals whose faces are most like human faces.
1) People feel a lot of sympathy for chimpanzees
2) People feel a lot of sympathy for parakeets.
What type of support does statement 1) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
15 Generalization: People are most likely to feel sympathy for those animals whose faces are most like human faces.
1) People feel a lot of sympathy for chimpanzees
2) People feel a lot of sympathy for parakeets.
What type of support does statement 2) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
16 Generalization: Dark objects get hotter in the sunlight than light objects do.
1) My dark blazer is always better in the sun than my tan blazer, even though they're made of the same material
2) Snow is white.
What type of support does statement 1) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
17 Generalization: Dark objects get hotter in the sunlight than light objects do.
1) My dark blazer is always better in the sun than my tan blazer, even though they're made of the same material
2) Snow is white.
What type of support does statement 2) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
18 Generalization: During the Enlightenment, free-thinkers in Catholic France became atheists, while free-thinkers in Protestant England became Deists.
1) The French Enlightenment thinker Voltaire was an atheist
2) Champagne was invented by a French monk.
What type of support does statement 1) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
19 Generalization: During the Enlightenment, free-thinkers in Catholic France became atheists, while free-thinkers in Protestant England became Deists.
1) The French Enlightenment thinker Voltaire was an atheist
2) Champagne was invented by a French monk.
What type of support does statement 2) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
20 Generalization: Caesarean sections are becoming a more popular method of birth.
1) About 30% of births now are by Caesarean section, up from 15% ten years ago
2) With a Caesarean section, a woman can plan on giving birth at a specific time.
What type of support does statement 1) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
21 Generalization: Caesarean sections are becoming a more popular method of birth.
1) About 30% of births now are by Caesarean section, up from 15% ten years ago
2) With a Caesarean section, a woman can plan on giving birth at a specific time.
What type of support does statement 2) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
22
Generalization: The welfare system breeds dependency on handouts.
1) About 30% of people on welfare at any given time stay on welfare for 1-3 years
2) The need to support oneself is a major incentive for work.
What type of support does statement 1) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
23 Generalization: The welfare system breeds dependency on handouts.
1) About 30% of people on welfare at any given time stay on welfare for 1-3 years
2) The need to support oneself is a major incentive for work.
What type of support does statement 2) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
24 Generalization: Two-thirds of the American people support a regulation requiring air bags on all cars.
1) 65% in a randomly chosen sample answered "yes" to the question: "Would you support mandatory air bags in cars rather than allowing people to continue being mutilated in traffic accidents?''.
What type of support does statement 1) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
25 Generalization: A majority of people support the Strategic Defense Initiative (Star Wars).
1) The Republican Party found that 72% of its contributors supported Star Wars
2) The Gallup poll reported that 59% of a large, randomly selected sample, asked "Do you think the Strategic Defense Initiative is a good idea or not?" supported SDI.
What type of support does statement 1) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
26 Generalization: A majority of people support the Strategic Defense Initiative (Star Wars).
1) The Republican Party found that 72% of its contributors supported Star Wars
2) The Gallup poll reported that 59% of a large, randomly selected sample, asked "Do you think the Strategic Defense Initiative is a good idea or not?" supported SDI.
What type of support does statement 2) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
27 Generalization: Eating fresh fruit and vegetables lowers the risk of stroke.
1) A group eating an extra helping of fruit or vegetables every day had 40% fewer strokes than a control group
2) Fresh produce contains potassium, which inhibits strokes.
What type of support does statement 1) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
28 Generalization: Eating fresh fruit and vegetables lowers the risk of stroke.
1) A group eating an extra helping of fruit or vegetables every day had 40% fewer strokes than a control group
2) Fresh produce contains potassium, which inhibits strokes.
What type of support does statement 2) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
29 Generalization: The crisis in liability insurance is harming American businesses.
1) By a large majority, top corporation executives favor limiting liability awards against corporations
2) Among companies that have had liability damages awarded against them, the bankruptcy rate is up sharply over the last decade.
What type of support does statement 1) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant
30 Generalization: The crisis in liability insurance is harming American businesses.
1) By a large majority, top corporation executives favor limiting liability awards against corporations
2) Among companies that have had liability damages awarded against them, the bankruptcy rate is up sharply over the last decade.
What type of support does statement 2) provide for this generalization?
a) Confirms
b) Disconfirms
c) Irrelevant



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