Hypothetical Propositions:
Nonstandard Forms

Hypothetical propositions are used pervasively in everyday reasoning, and they can be expressed in a variety of nonstandard forms. In the remainder of this section, we look at some of the more common nonstandard forms.

"p if q"

"p only if q"

"p if and only if q"

"p unless q"

"Whenever p, q"

"Without p, then q"

Of course, there are other nonstandard ways of expressing disjunctive and hypothetical propositions. Our language is far too rich and subtle for us to capture every possibility in a small set of rules. But what we outline here encompasses a great many statements occurring in everyday speech.

Hypothetical Propositions

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