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Chapter 10
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  • 1970s rock evolved into big business
    • Early 1970s rock based on the hippie aesthetic shifted to economic concerns
      1. Rock musicians began creating mass appeal music
        • Goal became how much money could be made
        • Less emphasis on sincerity and creativity
      2. Much early 1970s effort was put into developing psychedelic era creative ideas
      3. The second half of the 1970s saw a consolidation of earlier mainstream styles
    • FM radio shifted from free-form 1960s approach to AOR
      1. Album cuts became the norm
        • Big advertising money was at stake
        • Stations played what would generate high advertising rates
      2. Advertising rates are based on several aspects
        • How many listeners a station has
        • Who listens to their station
        • Age of listeners
        • Listeners' income
        • How long they listen before they switch to another station
        • Advertising concerns can affect what music gets played
      3. By the late 1970s stations were heavily formatted
        • Program directors or consultants calling the shots
        • Disk-jockeys choosing less of the music
      4. Long tracks were no longer considered "radio friendly"
        • Did not leave enough time for commercials
        • Listeners would change the channel
        • The ideal length for a radio friendly track was about four to five minutes
      5. Major corporations invested in the music business
      6. Music from the last half of the decade was designed specifically for radio play
      7. Steady growth of hippie culture fueled growth of the rock-music business in the early 1970s
      8. Realization that an unimaginable amount of money could be made
        • Emergence of the goal to create the "big album"
        • Before 1975 album sales of 300,000 to 500,000 units was considered good
  • The quest for the "Big Album"
    • Peter Frampton
      1. Early in 1976, Peter Frampton's live album, Frampton Comes Alive, exceeded all expectations
        • Sold millions rather than thousands of copies
        • His first two albums had respectable sales
        • His third and fourth releases did better
        • Something's Happening (p25, 1974)
        • Frampton (p32, 1975)
      2. Frampton Comes Alive hit number one on the U.S. album charts (uk6) in 1976
        • A live album
        • Marked the beginning of corporate investment in the music business
      3. The album contained hit tracks
        • "Show Me the Way" (p6 uk10)
        • "Baby, I Love Your Way" (p12 uk43)
        • "Do You Feel Like We Do" (p19 uk39)
      4. Frampton's next album, I'm in You, was also successful
        • "I'm in You" (p2 uk41, 1977) was the title track of his next album
      5. Frampton couldn't duplicate his success after that
      6. Multinational corporations began investing in music
        • They had no experience in music
        • Were not interested in anything but the bottom line
        • They bought record labels hoping to cash in on another Frampton phenomenon
      7. Concerts moved to stadiums and arenas
      8. Musicians cashed in on the new record-setting concert ticket sales and record sales
      9. Lifestyles of musicians on major labels became excessive
    • The Eagles
      1. The Eagles had a personnel change in 1977:
        • James Gang guitarist Joe Walsh replaced Bernie Leadon
        • Their style shifted away from country-influenced rock to a harder rock sound
      2. Their next album, Hotel California (p1 uk2, 1977), included three hit tracks
        • "New Kid in Town" (p1, uk20)
        • "Hotel California" (p1 uk8)
        • "Life in the Fast Lane" (p11)
      3. The last Eagles album of the decade was The Long Run (p1 uk4, 1979)
    • Fleetwood Mac
      1. Started out as a British blues band in the late 1960s
        • Led by guitarist Peter Green
        • Guitarist Jeremy Spenser
        • Drummer Mick Fleetwood
        • Bassist John McVie
      2. First album: Peter Green's Fleetwood Mac (uk10, 1968)
      3. Hit single the same year with "Albatross" (uk1)
      4. The band began changing members
        • By 1971 Green and Spenser were gone
        • Keyboardist/vocalist Christine McVie joined
        • By 1975, guitarist/vocalist Lindsay Buckingham and singer Stevie Nicks had joined
      5. The next album, Fleetwood Mac, went to number one in 1975 and contained hit songs
        • "Rhiannon" (p11)
        • "Say You Love Me" (p11 uk40)
      6. The next album, Rumours, spent thirty-one weeks at number one on the Billboard chart in 1977
      7. Also contained the hit tracks
        • "Don't Stop" (p3 uk32)
        • "Dreams" (p1 uk24), and
        • "You Make Loving Fun" (p9 uk45)
      8. The album's unprecedented success could be attributed to a couple of aspects
        • It was filled with catchy songs
        • Songs dealt with personal relationships within the band
      9. Fleetwood Mac never repeated the phenomenal success of Rumours
      10. They had successful album sales well into the 1980s
        • Tusk (p4 uk1, 1979)
        • Mirage (p1 uk5, 1982)
        • Tango in the Night (p7 uk1, 1987)
    • The problems with the quest for the Big Album
      1. Encouraged a conservative attitude in the record industry
      2. Less willingness to take chances on a band that might sell only 350,000 records
      3. The industry became obsessed with the "big album" bottom line
      4. How the music sounded was less important than the income generated
  • Mainstream rock continues
    • Bands from the 1960s returned to the forefront
      1. Much of the mainstream rock in the late 1970s continued styles from the early 1970s
      2. This was a new phenomenon—old rockers (age thirty or even forty) still going strong
        • Rolling Stones
        • Paul McCartney and his new band Wings
        • Pink Floyd
        • Jefferson Airplane renamed Jefferson Starship, and renamed again just Starship
        • Steve Miller Band
    • The Rolling Stones
      1. Brought in ex-Faces guitarist Ron Wood to replace Mick Taylor in 1976
      2. Continued to release hit albums and singles and sell out stadium and arena concerts
        • Black and Blue (p1 uk2, 1976)
        • "Fool to Cry" (p10 uk6)
        • Some Girls (p1 uk2, 1978)
        • "Miss You" (p1 uk3)
        • Emotional Rescue (p1 uk1, 1980)
        • "Emotional Rescue" (p3 uk9)
    • Paul McCartney
      1. McCartney released two solo albums after leaving the Beatles
      2. First solo album: McCartney (1970)
        • Secretly recorded during the final months of the Beatles era
        • Double platinum sales
      3. Second solo was Ram (1971), credited to Paul and wife Linda McCartney
      4. Formed Wings in 1971 with his wife Linda
        • Guitarist Denny Laine
        • Drummer Denny Seiwell
      5. Released the first Wings album: Wild Life (1971)
      6. Red Rose Speedway(uk9) was the band's second album
      7. "My Love" topped the American singles chart (uk9)
      8. Wings' most successful album, commercially and aesthetically, is Band on the Run (pl uk1, 1974)
        • Paul McCartney successfully updated his Beatles style with convincing tracks
        • "Jet"
        • "Band on the Run" (p1 uk1)
      9. Wings continued their success with the albums and singles that followed
        • Venus and Mars (p1 uk1, 1975)
        • "Listen to What the Man Said" (p1 uk6)
        • Wings at the Speed of Sound (p1 uk2, 1976)
        • "Silly Love Songs" (p1 uk2)
        • London Town (p2 uk4, 1978)
        • "With a Little Luck" (p1 uk5)
    • Pink Floyd
      1. Built on the earlier success of Dark Side of the Moon
      2. Wish You Were Here (p1 uk1, 1975)
      3. Animals (p3 uk2, 1977)
      4. The Wall (p1 uk3, 1979)
        • Extreme and thorough manifestation of the concept album
        • An album and a stage show timed down to the second
    • Jefferson Airplane
      1. Renamed Jefferson Starship
      2. Released Dragonfly (p11, 1975)
      3. Singer Marty Balin rejoined the band in 1975
      4. Next album, Red Octopus, rose to the top of the U.S. album charts in 1975
      5. The single from Red Octopus, "Miracles" (p3), features Grace Slick and Balin in a vocal duet
      6. Spitfire (p3 uk30, 1976)
      7. Earth (p5, 1,978)
      8. Freedom at Zero Point (p10 uk22, 1980)
      9. Kantner left the group but the band's success continued well into the 1980s
    • Steve Miller Band
      1. Much more success in the 1970s than in the 1960s
      2. The album The Joker (p2, 1973) was the beginning of their success
      3. "The Joker" was the U.S. number one single from this album
      4. Band continued to release hit records through most of the 1970s
      5. Fly Like an Eagle (p3 uk11, 1976) is perhaps the band's best-known album with several hit tracks
        • "Fly Like an Eagle" (p2)
        • "Rock 'n' Me" (p1 uk11)
        • "Take the Money and Run" (p 11)
      6. Book of Dreams (p2 uk1, 1977) contained the hit "Jet Airliner" (p8)
    • Aerosmith
      1. Continued to build on their success during the first half of the 1970s
      2. Released several hit records through the 1970s ranking among the decade's top acts
        • Toys in the Attic (p11, 1975)
        • Rocks (p3, 1976)
        • Draw the line (p11, 1978)
        • A Night in the Ruts (p14, 1979)
    • Bad Company
      1. Had a reasonable run of successful albums through the 1970s
        • Run with the Pack (p5 uk4, 1976)
        • Burnin' Sky (p15 uk17, 1977)
        • Desolation Angels (p3 uk10, 1979)
    • Kiss
      1. The second half of the 1970s was the height of commercial success for Kiss
        • Alive! (p9, 1976)
        • Rock and Roll Over (p11, 1977)
        • Love Gun (p4, 1977)
        • Dynasty (p9, 1979)
    • Doobie Brothers
      1. Michael McDonald replaced Tom Johnston due to illness
      2. The band put more emphasis on jazz influences
      3. Several hit records reestablished the band as a highly successful group
        • Takin' It to the Streets (p8, 1976)
        • Livin' on the Fault Line (p10 uk23, 1977)
      4. Minute by Minute (p 1, 1979) was the height of commercial success
      5. The album contained. three hit tracks
        • "Minute by Minute" (p1 uk31)
        • "What a Fool Believes" (p 14)
        • "Dependin' on You" (p25)
      6. The group followed with One Step Closer (p3, 1980)
  • New bands with proven styles
    • Many bands appeared with refinements of earlier styles
      1. A common point is the adaptation of earlier styles to fit radio play criterion
      2. Boston blended blues rock with aspects of progressive rock
      3. Heavily processed electronic manipulation of guitar sounds
        • First album, Boston, climbed to number three
        • The single "More Than a Feeling" from that album exemplifies their approach
        • Don't Look Back (p1 uk9, 1978) was a success
        • Third album, Third Stage, wasn't released until 1986
        • Third Stage went to number one in 1986 (uk37)
    • Foreigner
      1. Formed by ex-Spooky Tooth guitarist Mick Jones
      2. Lead vocals by newcomer Lou Gramm
      3. The first few albums feature keyboards prominently
        • Clearly influenced by progressive rockers like Yes and ELP
        • Radio-friendly song lengths
        • Blues-rock guitar and vocals
      4. Band's debut Foreigner (p4, 1977) featured hit tracks
        • "Feels Like the First Time" (p4, 1977; uk39, 1978)
        • "Cold as Ice" (p6, 1977)
      5. The next album, Double Vision (p3 uk32, 1978), contained three hit tracks:
        • "Double Vision" (p2)
        • "Hot Blooded" (p3 uk42)
        • "Blue Morning" (p15 uk45, 1979)
      6. Sustained success into the 1980s
        • Head Games (p5, 1979)
        • Four (p1 uk5, 1981)
        • Agent Provocateur (p4 uk1, 1984)
      7. Lyrics often focused on male sexuality images
    • Journey
      1. Formed by guitarist Neal Schon and organist Greg Rolie
        • Both formerly of Santana
        • Steve Miller bassist Ross Valory
        • Zappa drummer Ansley Dunbar
        • Added singer Steve Perry
      2. Fourth album, Infinity, rose to number twenty-one in 1978
      3. Steve Smith replaced Dunbar for Evolution (p20, 1979)
      4. The band continued their success into the 1980s
        • "Lights" (a good representative of the band's power ballad style)
        • "Feelin' That Way" is an example of the band's harder-rock style
        • Departure hit number eight in 1980
        • Escape went to number one in 1981 (uk32)
      5. Perry's lyrics and delivery conveyed a softer vulnerability aspect
    • Cheap Trick
      1. Combined power chords with pop hooks
      2. Fourth album began a successful run of hit records
        • Live at Budokan (p4 uk29, 1979)
        • Contained the track "I Want You to Want Me" (p7 uk29)
        • Dream Police (p6 uk41, 1979)
    • Blue Oyster Cult
      1. Hit with their fourth album On Your Feet or On Your Knees (p22, 1975)
        • A live album
        • Heavy emphasis on guitars
      2. Next album, Agents of Fortune (p29 uk26, 1976),
        • Contained "(Don't Fear) the Reaper" (p12, 1976; uk16, 1978)
        • Band most identified with this song
        • Massive radio airplay
    • Van Halen
      1. Clearly inspired by Deep Purple and other British blues rockers
      2. Virtuosic guitar playing of Eddie Van Halen
      3. Wild man antics of singer David Lee Roth
      4. Their debut album Van Halen (p19 uk34, 1978) was a hit
        • Contains a cover version of the Kinks' "You Really Got Me" (p36)
        • "Runnin' with the Devil"
      5. Van Halen II (p6 uk23, 1979) contained two more hits
        • "Dance the Night Away" (p15)
        • "Beautiful Girls"
      6. Women and Children First (p6 uk15, 1980)
      7. They continued their success through the 1980s
  • Changes in progressive rock
    • Changes in progressive rock
      1. Albums had reached a point of maximum complexity
      2. To stay successful, progressive rock had to distill their efforts
        • King Crimson broke up
        • Peter Gabriel quit Genesis
        • Emerson Lake and Palmer's last release: Works I (p12 uk9, 1977)
    • Yes survived the 1970s
      1. Continued through the decade with personnel changes and revised style
      2. Going for the One (p1 uk1, 1977)
      3. Tormato (p10 uk8, 1978) was the last album with the most successful lineup
        • Singer Jon Anderson left
        • Replaced by Trevor Horn
        • Keyboardist Rick Wakeman left
        • Replaced by Geoff Downes
      4. They released Drama (p18 uk2, 1980)
      5. Style moved toward a new wave approach
      6. Horn and Downes recorded separately as the Buggies
        • Had a number one UK hit (p40) with "Video Killed the Radio Star"
        • The first song ever played on MTV
    • Jethro Tull
      1. Abandoned the progressive for a leaner, more song-oriented approach
      2. Continued to do well with a series of albums
        • Songs from the Wood (p8 uk13, 1977)
        • Heavy Horses (p19 uk20, 1978)
        • Stormwatch (p22 uk27, 1979)
        • A (p30 uk23, 1980)
    • Kansas
      1. Powered by the songwriting of keyboardist Kerry Livgren and the singing of Steve Walsh
      2. Less progressive rock extravagance and shorter songs
      3. Best success began with their fourth album, Leftoverture (p5, 1977)
        • Contained the hit "Carry On Wayward Son" (p11)
      4. Most successful album was Point of Know Return (p4, 1978)
        • Contained "Dust in the Wind" (p6)
    • Styx
      1. More economical progressive rock
      2. They had a hit with "Lady" (p6, 1975)
      3. No commercial success until their seventh album
      4. The Grand Illusion (p6 1977) featured two hit singles
        • "Come Sail Away" (p8)
        • "Fooling Yourself" (p29)
        • Wakeman style keyboards with a simpler pop-rock approach
      5. Pieces of Eight (p6, 1978) showed a shift in styles
        • Harder-rocking sound
        • Less of the progressive rock frills
        • Best exemplified by "Blue Collar Man" (p21)
        • "Renegade" (p16) also an example of the new sound
      6. Had hit albums and singles into the 1980s
        • Cornerstone (p2 uk36, 1979)
        • "Babe" (p1, uk6)
        • Paradise Theater (pl uk8, 1981)
        • Kilroy Was Here (p3, 1983)
    • Rush
      1. Canadian progressive rock group
        • Virtuosic playing
        • Ambitious poetic lyrics
        • Complex musical concepts
      2. Vocalist/bassist Geddy Lee likened to Yes's Jon Anderson and Zeppelin's Robert Plant
        • Guitar Alex Liefson
        • Drummer Neil Pert
      3. Avoided classical pretension that generated criticism of progressive rock bands
      4. First album released in 1977: a concept album 2112
      5. Permanent Waves (p4 uk3, 1980)
      6. Continued their success well into the 1990s
    • Alan Parsons Project
      1. Engineer-producer turned musician/artist
        • Engineer on the Beatles' Abbey Road
        • Engineer on Pink Floyd's Dark Side of the Moon
      2. Stylistic approach based on straight-ahead rock rather than progressive rock
        • Strong emphasis on blues-based vocals
        • Used a series of studio singers
      3. First album: Tales of Mystery and Imagination (p38, 1976)
        • Concept album based on the poetry of Edgar Allan Poe
      4. Other important Alan Parsons project concept albums:
        • I Robot (p9 uk30, 1977)
        • Contained the track "I Wouldn't Want to Be like You" (p36)
        • Pyramid (p26, 1978)
        • Eve (p13, 1979)
        • The Turn of a Friendly Card (p 13 uk38, 1980)
        • Eve in the Sky (p7 uk28, 1982)
        • Ammonia Avenue (p15 uk24, 1984)
    • Electric Light Orchestra (ELO)
      1. Obvious inspiration from the Beatles Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
      2. Rock band with string ensemble arrangements
      3. Vehicle for songwriter Jeff Lynne
      4. Moderate success in UK during the first half of the 1970s
      5. Success in United States with their fifth album: Eldorado (p16, 1975)
        • contained the hit "Can't Get It Out of My Head" (p9, 1975)
      6. The band followed with a series of hit albums and singles
        • Face the Music (p8, 1975)
        • "Evil Woman" (p10 uk10, 1976)
        • A New World Record (p5 uk6, 1977)
        • "Telephone Line" (p7 uk8)
        • Out of the Blue (p4 uk4, 1977)
        • Discovery (p5 uk1, 1979)
        • "Don't Bring Me Down" (p4 uk3)
    • Queen
      1. Cross between the glam aspects of David Bowie and progressive rock
      2. Inspired by some eclectic aspects of some late Beatles music
      3. Featuring the singing of Freddie Mercury
      4. Elaborate symphonically inspired guitar arrangements by Brian May
      5. First success in the UK with Queen II (uk5, 1974)
      6. Sheer Heart Attack (p12 uk2, 1975) brought U.S. chart success
      7. A Night at the Opera (p4 uk1, 1976) was an important album
        • Contained "Bohemian Rhapsody" (p9 uk1)
      8. A Day at the Races (p5 uk1, 1977)
      9. News of the World (p4 uk3, 1977) contained two important hits:
        • "We Will Rock You"
        • "We Are the Champions"
      10. Queen's success continued through the 1980s
        • Jazz (p6 uk2, 1978)
        • The Game (p1 uk1, 1980)
        • Contained "Another One Bites the Dust" (p 1 uk7)
        • Hot Space (p22 uk4, 1982)
        • The Works (p23 uk2, 1984)
        • A Kind of Magic (uk1, 1986)
        • The Miracle (p24 uk1, 1989)
  • Singer-songwriters and their bands
    • Singer-songwriters added band accompaniment to their sound
      1. Retained sincerity in lyrics
      2. Used bands to add a harder rock sound to their style
    • Bob Dylan
      1. Resurgence in his career with his album Planet Waves (p1 uk7, 1974)
      2. Dylan continued to release aesthetically and commercially successful records
        • Blood on the Tracks (p1 uk4, 1975)
        • "Tangled Up in Blue" (p31)
        • Desire (p1 uk3, 1976)
        • "Hurricane" (p33 uk43)
        • Street Legal (p 11 uk2, 1978)
        • Slow Train Coming (p3 uk2, 1979)
        • Saved (p24 uk3, 1980)
    • Elton John
      1. Continued through the decade with a string of hit records and successful tours
        • "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" (p1 uk10, 1974)
        • "Philadelphia Freedom" (p1 uk12, 1975)
        • Captain Fantastic and the Brown Dirt Cowboy (p1 uk2): one of the top albums of 1975
        • "Someone Saved My Life Tonight" (p4 uk22)
        • Rock of the Westies (p1 uk5, 1975)
        • Contained the hit "Island Girl" (p1 uk14)
        • "Don't Go Breaking My Heart" (p1 ukl, 1976): Duet with singer Kiki Dee
        • Blue Moves (p3 uk3, 1976)
        • "Sorry Seems to Be the Hardest Word" (p6 uk11, 1976)
        • A Single Man (p15 uk8, 1978)
    • Paul Simon
      1. Continued his solo career and expanded his style to include non-folk styles
        • Jazz
        • Rhythm and blues
        • Gospel
      2. His Greatest Hits, etc. (p18 uk6, 1977) included some new tracks demonstrating new influences
        • "Slip Slidin' Away" is clearly gospel influenced with references to jazz as well
      3. He released a movie and accompanying album called One Trick Pony (p12 uk17, 1980)
        • Used a band of top studio musicians for the project
        • Film received mixed reviews
        • Music is the most complex of his career
    • Billy Joel
      1. First big success was with his second album, Piano Man (p27, 1973)
        • Contained the track "Piano Man" (p25)
      2. Streetlife Serenade (1974) and Turnstiles (1976) didn't do well
      3. The Stranger (p2 uk25, 1977) was the beginning of a long series of hits with four hit tracks
        • "Just the Way You Are" (p3 uk19)
        • "Movin' Out" (p17 uk35)
        • "Only the Good Die Young" (p24)
        • "She's Always a Woman" (p17)
      4. His album 52nd Street hit number one in 1978 and featured hit tracks
        • "My Life" (p3 uk12)
        • "Big Shot" (p14, 1979)
      5. New wave arrived on the scene at the end of the decade
        • Inspired by earlier rock styles
        • Joel released an album influenced by earlier rock and pop styles
      6. Glass Houses (p1 uk9, 1980) contained two hits that referred to earlier music:
        • "You May Be Right" (p7) seemed to evoke the Rolling Stones
        • "It's Still Rock and Roll to Me" (p1 uk14) seemed modeled on late 1950s rock
    • Jackson Browne
      1. Jackson Browne had been part of the early 1970s country rock scene in southern California
      2. Co-wrote the Eagles' "Take It Easy,"
      3. Scored a hit single with "Doctor My Eyes" (p8) in 1972
      4. Browne's third album, Late for the Sky (p 14, 1974) did well,
      5. Biggest success came after 1975 beginning with The Pretender (p5 uk26, 1976)
      6. Runnin' On Empty (p3 uk28, 1978) featured two tracks that became staples on FM radio
        • "Runnin' On Empty" (p3 uk28, 1978)
        • "Stay" (p20 uk1, 1978)
      7. Hold Out (p1, 1980) was Browne's last 1980s album
      8. He continued to release albums on a more limited basis through the 1990s
    • Bob Seger
      1. Bob Seger is from Detroit
      2. Had early successful single in 1968, then left the music business for a few years
      3. Returned with the album Beautiful Loser (1975)
      4. Seger became known for his folksy lyrics about everyday situations
      5. Songs often had hard-rocking accompaniment of the Silver Bullet Band
      6. The Live Bullet (p34, 1976) appealed to rock listeners
      7. Night Moves (p8, 1977) was a big success and featured hit singles
        • "Night Moves" (p4)
        • "Mainstreet" (p24)
      8. Stranger in Town (p4 uk31, 1978) contained hit singles:
        • "Still the Same" (p4)
        • "Old Time Rock & Roll" (p28, 1979)
      9. After Against the Wind (p1 uk26, 1980) he continued releasing successful records through the 1980s
    • Bruce Springsteen
      1. Backed by the E-Street Band
      2. Springsteen's lyrics were understood to be largely autobiographical and frequently confessional
      3. Springsteen's third album, Born to Run (p3 uk17, 1975) was an important album
        • Established him as an important new voice in rock
        • Also embraced rock's past
        • The single "Born to Run" (p23) was inspired by Phil Spector's Wall of Sound
      4. Springsteen enjoyed continued success through the 1970s and 1980s
        • Edge of Town (p5 uk16, 1978)
        • The River hit number one in the United States (uk2) in 1980
  • Formal design
    • Earlier 1970s bands created extended length songs with overall formal structures based on AABA pattern
      1. Led Zeppelin's "Whole Lotta Love"
      2. Yes's "Roundabout"
    • Later 1970s bands condensed their formal structures into shorter songs
      1. One example of this is Boston's "More than a Feeling"
      2. Another example is Foreigner's "Feels like the First Time"
    • Boston's "More than a Feeling":
      1. Compound AABA structure
        • Verse-chorus making up the A section
        • Harmonized guitar solos make up the B sections
        • Each section is slightly different—no two are repeated exactly
        • This creates a more sophisticated overall form
    • Foreigner's "Feels like the First Time":
      1. Variation on the AABA formula
        • In the second A section a bridge appears between verse 2 and the chorus
        • A second bridge occurs after the second chorus with a guitar solo
        • Guitar solo is common after second chorus in 1970s rock
        • The final A section is incomplete—containing only a chorus (no verse)
        • Total length is just under four minutes—perfect for radio
    • The sound
      1. Both songs use distorted guitar—common in 1970s rock
      2. Progressive rock is represented by synthesizer in the Foreigner song
        • Arpeggios in the introduction and choruses
        • Harmony is influenced by classical music progressions
      3. In the Boston song guitars are carefully "orchestrated"
        • Melodies are combined and coordinated as is done in classical music
        • Guitars are blended with the other instruments as in classical music
  • The Roots of Punk Music
    • 1970s mainstream rock had become complacent
      1. FM radio had narrowed the spectrum of styles played
      2. Focus was on a smaller number of bands and "big album" cuts
      3. New bands were similar to what was already popular
    • In England a new underground was developing
      1. Bands were using outrageous stage antics as the draw to their shows
      2. Highly aggressive, violent imagery supported the antisocial character of these bands
        • The Sex Pistols
        • The Buzzcocks
        • The Clash
    • British punk had roots in America
      1. The Velvet Underground in New York
        • Songwriter / singer / guitarist Lou Reed
        • Avant-garde composer John Cale played bass and viola
        • Sterling Morrison on guitar
        • Maureen Tucker on drums
        • Sponsored and produced by Andy Warhol
      2. Reed's lyrics focused on the dark side of the urban human experience
      3. Cale wanted to explore avant-garde ideas in a pop music context
      4. Warhol featured the Velvets in his Exploding Plastic Inevitable multimedia performance art piece
      5. Their first album The Velvet Underground and Nico in late 1966 went unnoticed
      6. The band separated from Warhol and performed on the east coast during the '70s
    • Nonconformity in Detroit
      1. The Stooges released their first album in 1969
      2. Led by Iggy Pop
      3. Iggy built his reputation on confrontational stage antics
      4. Best example of the raw aggressive sound of the band is their album Fun House (1970)
      5. Another Detroit band with similar approach is MC5
      6. Their album Kick Out the Jams (p30, 1969) exemplifies their raw aggressive style
        • Verbal profanities foreshadow punk characteristics yet to come
      7. The key word is confrontation:
        • Velvet Underground used aesthetic confrontation typical to the avant-garde
        • Stooges used confrontation as a performance aspect
        • MC5 used powerful sonic and lyric ideas in a confrontational manner
  • The beginnings of the New York punk scene
    • New York Dolls
      1. Led by David Johansen
      2. Combined elements of British glam rock with hard-driving rock music
        • Costumes and makeup
        • They conveyed an image of toughness, danger, and nonconformity
        • These are key elements in punk music
      3. Two albums sold poorly
        • The New York Dolls (l973)
        • Too Much Too Soon (1974)
      4. Band inspired others in New York to follow their lead
    • Patti Smith
      1. Began performing as a poet with guitarist Lenny Kaye
        • Added pianist Richard Sohl
        • Released a cover of "Hey Joe" in 1974
      2. Eventually added other musicians and signed with Arista records
        • Ivan Krahl on bass
        • Jay Dee Daugherty on drums
        • They were the first New York punk band to sign a record contract
      3. They released their first album in 1975: Horses
      4. Their recording of "Gloria" represents their style
        • Recited intro seems to meander aimlessly
        • Builds in intensity eventually into an energetic rendering of the chorus
    • Television
      1. Formed by Richard Hell and Tom Verlaine
      2. Both were also poets
      3. Began to perform on Sunday nights in a club called CBGB in 1974
      4. CBGB is an acronym for Country, Bluegrass and Blues
      5. Patti Smith group soon began performing there as well
      6. CBGB soon became known as a punk club
    • The Ramones
      1. Members used stage names with the last name Ramone
        • Joey (vocals)
        • Johnny (guitar)
        • Dee Dee (bass)
        • Tommy (drums)
      2. Played short, fast high-energy rock songs
      3. Their albums didn't sell well but they had a big influence on other bands
        • Ramones (1976) which contained "Blitzkreig Bop"
        • Leave Home (uk45, 1977)
        • Rocket to Russia (1977)
        • Road to Ruin (uk32, 1978)
        • It's Alive (uk27, 1979)
        • End of the Century (uk14 p44, 1980)
        • The band's music was better received in the UK than in the states
    • Blondie
      1. Formed by singer Deborah Harry and guitarist Chris Stein
      2. Played at CBGB in 1974 as the Stilettos
      3. By 1976 Harry and Stein had reformed the group as Blondie
      4. Signed with Private Stock Records and released the first album, Blondie
        • Keyboardist Jimmy Destri
        • Guitarist Frank Infante
        • Drummer Clem Burke
        • Bassist Nigel Harrison
      5. The track "X Offender" demonstrates their early style
        • Early 1960s girl-group influences: spoken introduction
        • Happy driving beat
        • Backup vocals
        • Combo organ sounds
        • Ventures-like guitar solo
      6. Blondie went on to become one of the most commercially successful CBGB bands
  • British punk
    • 1970s British recession bred frustration and despair
      1. These feelings manifested themselves in the new anxious approach to music
      2. A key figure in the development of punk in England was Malcolm McLaren
      3. McLaren ran a clothing store in London
        • He was interested in early 1950s rock and roll
        • Sold leather jackets and biker wear
        • Met the New York Dolls when they came into the store during a tour of England in 1975
        • Managed them for a short while in America until they broke up in 1976
      4. In New York McLaren discovered the underground punk scene
      5. Returned to London and re-opened his shop, calling it Sex
        • Specialized in leather and fetish wear
        • Inspired by Richard Hell's stage persona and sense of punk fashion
    • The Sex Pistols
      1. Formed by guitarist Steve Jones and drummer Paul Cook
        • They were frequent visitors in McLaren's shop
        • Became friends with McLaren and other shop employees
      2. Sex employee Glen Matlock joined as bass player
      3. Singer John Lydon auditioned by singing (screaming) along to the jukebox in the store
        • The song was Alice Cooper's "School's Out"
        • Lydon's antics were so exaggerated as to be almost humorous
        • McLaren changed his name to Johnny Rotten
      4. The band was signed to EMI and released "Anarchy in the UK" in 1976
      5. They appeared on a British television show and uttered some profanities
        • Instant notoriety
        • EMI dropped their contract—paying off their advance in doing so
      6. Band then signed with A&M records
        • A&M changed their minds and dropped them—paying off their advance (as EMI had done)
      7. They signed with Virgin Records, receiving yet another advance
        • They gained a reputation as troublemakers
        • That was their aim in the first place
        • In March 1977 Sid Vicious replaced Glen Matlock on bass
      8. They went on to inspire punk bands wherever they played
      9. Their first album went to number one in the UK:
        • Never Mind the Bollocks, Here's the Sex Pistols (1977)
        • Also on the album: "God Save the Queen"
      10. The band broke up in 1978 after a series of scandals
        • They served as the model for punk bands from that time forward
        • The band was known more for their antics and attitude than their music
    • The Clash
      1. They set themselves into position as another side of punk: protesters Joe Strummer (vocals/guitar)
        • Paul Simonen (bass)
        • Mick Jones (guitar)
        • Tory Chimes (drums)
      2. The band released The Clash (uk12) in April 1977
        • Contained the single "White Riot" (uk38)
        • Tory Chimes left and they added Topper Headon on drums
      3. They did even better with Give 'em Enough Rope (uk2 1978)
      4. London Calling (p27 uk9, 1980) brought them into the American market
      5. "Train in Vain (Stand by Me)" (p27) got plenty of radio play
    • The Buzzcocks
      1. More pop-influenced style than Sex Pistols or the Clash
      2. Leader was Pete Shelley
      3. Series of successful albums and singles including
        • Another Music in a Different Kitchen (uk15 1978)
        • Love Bites (uk13, 1978)
        • "Ever Fallen in Love (with Someone You Shouldn't 've?)" (uk12)
    • The Ja
      1. Influenced (music and fashion) by mid 1960s British bands Kinks and Who
      2. Signed with Polydor and released In the City (uk20) in May 1977
        • Paul Weller (guitar/vocals)
        • Bruce Foxton (bass)
        • Rick Buckler (drums)
      3. This Is the Modern World (uk22)
        • The title cut representative of the band's blend of musical concepts
        • Hard-driving rhythm
        • Catchy pop hooks
      4. Success built through the end of the decade and into the 1980s
        • Mod Cons (uk6, 1978)
        • Setting Sons (uk4, 1979)
        • Sound Affects (uk2, 1980)
      5. The UK single "Start!" went to number one
    • Siouxie and the Banshees
      1. The band signed with Polydor and released the single "Hong Kong Garden"(uk7, 1978)
      2. They released the album The Scream in 1978 (uk12, 1978)
        • Dark brooding album that contained a gothic cover of the Beatles' "Helter Skelter"
        • The band continued their success into the 1980s with hit albums
        • Join Hands (uk13, 1979)
        • Kaleidoscope (uk5, 1980)
        • JuJu (uk7, 1981)
        • Contained a cover version of "Dear Prudence" (uk3, 1983)
    • X-Ray Spex
      1. Fronted by Poly Styrene, enjoyed brief success
      2. Germfree Adolescents (uk30, 1978)
      3. Contained "The Day the World Turned Day-Glo" (uk23)
    • The Slits,
      1. An all-female punk trio that opened for the Clash on their spring 1977 tour
      2. Released Cut (uk30) in September 1979
      3. The groups discussed here did at least moderately well in the British market
      4. None had any American success except the Clash
  • The punk aesthetic
    • Attack and simplify
    • Punk lyrics either attack the status quo or call for social and/or political change
    • The approach to the music is based on a return to basics and simplicity
      1. Rhythms are direct and driving
      2. Little or no virtuosity in the instrumental accompaniment
      3. Vocals are untrained and amateurish
      4. Chord progressions are uncomplicated
    • An examination of the Sex Pistol's song "Anarchy in the UK"
      1. Simple verse form is derived from early rock, rhythm and blues, and traditional folk music
        • Contrasts strongly with styles employed by Yes, Boston, and Foreigner
        • Each verse is sixteen measures in length
        • The last eight measures in each verse form a kind of "mini-chorus"
        • This eight-bar refrain is repeated three times at the end of the track, creating a coda
        • The coda becomes the song's "hook"
      2. Two bridges are inserted into the song
        • The first between verses two and three
        • The second between verses three and four
      3. Fast tempo and driving, steady eighth notes in the guitar, bass, and drums
        • No elaborate guitar solos or synthesizer riffs
        • These are features of early punk
  • The rise of American New Wave 1970-1980
    • Early British punk went largely unnoticed in the United States
      1. Music industry was more focused on the "big album" success concept
        • Frampton, the Eagles, Stevie Wonder, Fleetwood Mac
        • Wings, Aerosmith, Boston, Foreigner, and Billy Joel
      2. FM rock radio was falling into increasingly restricted playlists
      3. Sex Pistols toured the southern United States generating headlines about the trouble they caused
      4. Elvis Costello substituted for the Sex Pistols on Saturday Night Live
      5. Rolling Stone Magazine began devoting more coverage to punk bands
      6. The overall attitude in the music business was to avoid punk
        • Too dangerous
        • Too controversial
      7. Music business used the "next big thing" approach to punk
      8. Removed the most negative aspects of punk
        • Violence and aggression
        • Antisocial nonconformity
      9. Nurtured bands that conveyed irony and artsy aesthetic characteristics
    • Some survived conversion from punk to new wave; some didn't
      1. Television's albums were hits in the UK but failed in the states
      2. Patti Smith Group succeeded in the United States and UK
        • Easter (p20 uk16, 1978)
        • Contained the hit single "Because the Night" (p 13 uk5)
        • Wave (p18 uk41, 1979)
    • Blondie goes new wave
      1. Signed with Chrysalis in 1978 and began a series of hit releases:
        • Plastic Letters (uk10, 1978)
        • "Denis" (uk2)
        • "(I'm Always Touched by Your) Presence, Dear" (uk10)
        • Parallel Lines (p6 uk1, 1978)
        • "Heart of Glass" (p1 uk1, 1978)
        • "Hanging on the Telephone" (uk5)
        • "Sunday Girl" (uk1)
        • Eat to the Beat (p 17 uk1, 1979
        • "Dreaming" (p2 uk27)
        • "Call Me" (p1 uk1, 1980) was released as a single
        • Autoamerican (p7 uk3, 1980)
        • "The Tide Is High" (p1 uk1)
        • "Rapture" (p5 uk1, early 1981)
    • Talking Heads
      1. Made up of students from the Rhode Island School of Design
      2. Led by songwriter David Byrne
      3. Debuted at CBGB in May 1975
      4. Byrne's songs were praised for their intellectual and artsy character
      5. Signed with Sire and released Talking Heads 77 in September 1977
      6. The track "Psycho Killer" exemplifies their early approach
        • Sparse instrumental accompaniment
        • Byrne's vocal delivery seemed spastic
      7. More Songs about Buildings and Food (p29 uk21) was released in summer 1978
        • The track "Take Me to the River" (p26) was released as a single in October
        • Boosted the album's sales
      8. Two subsequent albums established the band as one of new wave's leading groups
        • Fear of Music (p21 uk33, 1979)
        • Remain in Light (p19 uk21, 1980)
  • New Wave bands weren't all from CBGB
    • The Cars
      1. Based in Boston
      2. Leader was guitarist/vocalist Ric Ocasek
      3. Included ex- Modern Lovers drummer David Robinson
      4. Among the first new wave bands to get regular FM radio play
      5. Signed with Elektra
      6. Debut release: The Cars (p18 uk29, 1978), contained two popular FM radio hits
        • "My Best Friend's Girl" (p35 uk3, 1978)
        • "Just What I Needed" (p27, 1978; uk17, 1979)
      7. Candy-O (p3 uk30, 1979) contained "Let's Go" (p14)
      8. Panorama (p5, 1980)
      9. Continued to top the charts well into the 1980s
    • Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers
      1. Originally from Florida
      2. Inspired by folk-rock style of Dylan and the Byrds
      3. Petty and the Heartbreakers continued to release hit albums through the 1990s
      4. Their successful records and tours span decades
      5. Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers (uk24, 1977)
        • "American Girl" (uk40)
        • So similar to Byrds sound that Roger McGuinn thought it was one of his own songs
      6. You're Gonna Get It (p23 uk34) contained "I Need to Know" (p41)
      7. Switched to MCA records, releasing Damn the Torpedoes (p2) in late 1979
        • Several strong tracks, included in the album:
        • "Don't Do Me like That" (p10)
        • "Refugee" (p15, 1980)
    • Devo
      1. Most ironic and unusual of the new wave groups
        • From Ohio
        • Led by brothers Mark and Bob Mothersbaugh
      2. Developed an image based on 1950s sci-fi predictions of the future
      3. First album did better in England than in the United States
        • Q: Are We Not Men? A: We Are Devo! (uk12)
        • Containing the cover of "(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction" (uk41)
        • Their theme song: "Jocko Homo"
      4. First U.S. commercial success: Freedom of Choice (p22 uk47, 1980)
      5. Contained the hit single "Whip It" (p14)
    • B-52s
      1. Leader: singer Fred Schneider
        • Singers Kate Pierson and Cindy Wilson
        • 1950s image characterized by the women's bee-hive hairdos
      2. First success was in the UK with The B-52s (uk22, 1979)
        • "Rock Lobster" (uk37)
      3. More commercial success with the release of Wild Planet (p18 uk18, 1980)
    • The Knack
      1. Musical styles and images drawn from pre-hippie 1960s era
      2. Capitol Records marketed them as the new Beatles
      3. Get the Knack (p1, 1979) contained the single "My Sharona" (p1 uk6)
        • Appeared on the cover in Beatles-style attire
        • Back cover was meant to suggest the Beatles' Ed Sullivan appearance
        • Had Capitol use the same logo on the label as in the mid 1960s. All this worked briefly
      4. The next album, But the Little Girls Understand (p15, 1980), was the last album to chart
  • British New Wave Bands
    • British punk bands weren't successful in the United States
      1. There were a small number of exceptions:
        • Sex Pistols
        • Clash
      2. British punk bands that succeeded in the states were modeled on the new wave concept
    • Elvis Costello
      1. First British new wave artist—distributed by Columbia in the United States
      2. Well known for aggressive and clever attacks on the status quo
      3. Trio of albums established Costello as one of rock's most interesting songwriters
        • While My Aim Is True (p32 uk14, 1978) contained the ballad "Alison"
        • This Year's Model (p30 uk4, 1978) was recorded with a backup band: the Attractions
        • "Pump It Up" (uk24) and "Radio Radio" (uk29, 1978) show his raucous side
        • Armed Forces (p10 uk2, 1979) completed the trio
    • Police
      1. Well known for strong reggae influence on their style and masterful performance
        • Complex drumming of Stuart Copeland
        • Literary lyrics of Sting
        • Tons of atmospheric guitar from Andy Summers
      2. First album, Outlandos D'Amour (p23, 1979) had two hit singles
        • "Roxanne" (p32 uk12)
        • "Can't Stand Losing You" (p42 uk2)
      3. Released several hit albums and singles
        • Regatta de Blanc (p25 79), "Message in a Bottle" (uk1)
        • Zenyatta Mondatta (p5 uk1, 1980), and "Don't Stand so Close to Me" (p10 uk1)
      4. Police became one of the most important bands of the early 1980s
    • Joe Jackson
      1. Began his career in a new wave style before moving on to other styles in the 1980s
      2. Look Sharp! (p20 uk40, 1979)
      3. "Is She Really Going Out with Him?" (p21 uk13) and "Sunday Papers"
      4. Great amount of radio play at the end of the 1970s
      5. Last new wave album was I'm the Man (p22 uk12, 1979)
  • The new wave connection to the past
    • Visual aspects
      1. Artists embraced the look of earlier artists
        • Elvis Costello adopted the Buddy Holly look:
        • Short hair
        • Horn-rimmed glasses
        • Straight-legged pants
      2. All of this against the 1970s look of long hair and bell-bottom pants
    • Musical references: The Cars' "My Best Friend's Girl"
      1. Handclaps during the introduction
        • Heard in early 1960s girl groups
        • Early Beatles songs ("I Want to Hold Your Hand")
      2. Singer Ric Ocasek's hiccupping vocal delivery imitates Buddy Holly
      3. Organ chords imitate garage band organ parts
      4. Simple harmonic progressions
      5. They do use a slightly more sophisticated formal structure
        • Compound AABA as seen in Foreigner or Boston songs
        • They don't alter the measure count though (as is done in those artists' work)
    • General rejection of the hippie aesthetic
      1. Scaled back the musical complexities
      2. Shortened the tunes
      3. Used topics of teenage romance
      4. Did not demonstrate musical prowess
      5. Reference styles predating Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
      6. Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band marks the beginning of hippie culture
      7. Made ironic references to earlier music
      8. Were not embracing earlier styles
      9. Used references to earlier styles to offer a critique of the present
  • Old versus new: American Gary Wright and Englishman Gary Numan
    • Wright's "Dream Weaver"
      1. Wright released The Dream Weaver (p7) in late 1975 featuring two hit tracks:
        • "Dream Weaver" (p2)
        • "Love Is Alive" (p2)
      2. Gary Numan released Replicas (uk1, 1979) in 1979
        • Hit single, "Are We 'Friends' Electric?" (uk1)
        • Pleasure Principle (p16 uk1, 1979) featured the hit "Cars" (p9 uk1)
    • Comparing Wright's "Dream Weaver" with Numan's "Cars"
      1. Tracks rely almost exclusively on synthesized sounds
        • Wright: warm timbres, saturated with reverb and echo
        • Similar to the broad textures used by progressive rock keyboardists such as
        • Rick Wakeman or
        • Keith Emerson
        • Numan's synthesizer sounds are harsher, creating a drier and more focused sound
        • Similar to Germany's Kraftwerk
      2. Vocals:
        • Wright's vocals are blues influenced
        • Numan's are mechanical and clipped off
      3. Projection of the future:
        • Wright suggests a beautiful futuristic voyage (hippie aesthetic approach)
        • Numan suggests a cold mechanical future (rejection of the hippie aesthetic)
    • Heart compared to Blondie
      1. Heart was led by sisters Anne (vocals) and Nancy (guitar) Wilson
      2. Debut album: Dreamboat Annie (p7 uk36) contained hit tracks
        • "Crazy on You" (p35)
        • "Magic Man"
      3. Little Queen (p9 uk34, 1977), featured the hit "Barracuda" (p11)
      4. Magazine (p17, 1978)
      5. Dog & Butterfly (p17, 1978), containing "Straight On" (p15)
      6. Bebe Le Strange (p5, 1980)
      7. Music has both a harder edge, and an acoustic, softer side
        • Singer Anne Wilson belts out vocals with power and authority
        • Anne Wilson adopted the stage persona of a Janis Joplin style hard-driving woman
        • Singing is forceful and technically schooled
        • Bluesy melodic style of singing
        • Softer songs showcase Nancy's guitar playing
        • Motivated by the hippie aesthetic that embraces technical virtuosity
      8. Harry's (Blondie) style is almost amateurish
        • This amateur quality is what new wave musicians were attempting to project
        • Harry demonstrates new wave's return-to-basics attitude
        • Evidence of new wave's rejection of rock's hippie legacy


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