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Chapter 9
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  • An overview of black pop
    • The breakdown of racial and cultural barriers in the 1950s
      1. Early rock and roll was controversial
        • Not everyone wanted those barriers broken down
        • The barriers were broken down by the younger generation
      2. Black pop blended elements of two radically different styles into pop
        • Country and western music
        • Black rhythm and blues
    • The popularity factor of 1970s black pop
      1. 1970s black pop grew from 1960s black pop
        • Motown and Stax artists and production teams
        • James Brown
        • Sly Stone from the San Francisco hippie scene
      2. Much music of black artists was not known to white listeners
      3. People involved with 1970s mainstream rock were mainly white
        • Fans
        • Musicians
        • Producers
        • Promoters
        • Music business participants
  • Black pop roots in the 1960s
    • Sly and the Family Stone
      1. Sly and the Family Stone had an important influence on black pop at the end of the 1960s
        • His music was important to many black musicians
        • His music was a blend of funk with aspects of psychedelia
        • Helped define black pop for white listeners in the early 1970s as well
      2. Band had a series of crossover hit singles
        • "Dance to the Music" (p8 r9, 1968)
        • "Everyday People" (p1 r1, 1969)
        • "Thank You (Falettinme Be Mice Elf Agin)" (p1 r1, 1970)
        • "Family Affair" (p1 r1, 1971)
      3. During the mid 1960s Sly Stone (Sylvester Stewart) was a disk-jockey and record producer
      4. In 1967 Sly and the Family Stone began playing in the Bay Area
        • Bassist Larry Graham
        • Drummer Gregg Errico
        • Guitarist Freddie Stone
        • Vocals and keyboards Sly Stone
        • Vocals and keyboards (sister) Rose Stone Banks
        • Trumpet Cynthia Robinson
        • Sax Jerry Martini
      5. Became involved in the San Francisco psychedelic music scene
      6. Blended black and white music styles together
      7. Racially and sexually integrated band
      8. Early songs were upbeat dance-oriented songs
        • Exemplified by "Thank You (Falettinme Be Mice Elf Agin)"
        • Repeating bass riff established "groove" (rhythmic feel)
        • That bass riff is the key to the song's effectiveness—typical of Sly's music
      9. The band took on a more militant attitude beginning in 1971
        • The album There's a Riot Goin' On (p1 r1)
        • Focus on controversial issues
        • Racial
        • Political
      10. Last major commercial success for the group was the album Fresh (p7 r1, 1973)
      11. Contains the hit single "If You Want Me to Stay" (p12 r3)
      12. Epic Records had marketed the band as if they were a rock act
        • Emphasized both singles and albums
        • Significant airplay on white rock radio
        • Black pop acts began focusing more attention on albums
  • Black pop in the beginning of the 1970s
    • Ohio Players (formerly the Ohio Untouchables)
      1. Not much success with releases during the 1960s
      2. 1973 hit single: "Funky Worm"
        • Novelty song
        • Number one on the rhythm and blues charts
        • Number fifteen on the pop charts
      3. Several hit albums went number one on the rhythm and blues charts and did well on pop charts
        • Skin Tight (1974)
        • Fire (1975)
        • Honey (1975)
        • Contradiction (1976)
      4. Success peaked in 1975 with "Love Rollercoaster" (r1 p1)
    • Kool and the Gang
      1. Began in Jersey City as a jazz-influenced band (originally called the Jazziacs) working with jazz greats
        • Thelonious Monk
        • Pharoah Sanders
        • McCoy Tyner
      2. Modest success with singles on the rhythm and blues charts
        • "Let the Music Take Your Mind" (r19, 1970)
        • "Funky Man" (r16, 1970)
      3. Became an important crossover act in 1973 with the album Wild and Peaceful (r6 p33, 1973)
        • Incorporated Sly Stone's pop funk concepts into the music
        • Three important crossover hit singles:
        • "Funky Stuff" (r5 p29)
        • "Jungle Boogie" (r2 p4) and
        • "Hollywood Swinging" (r1 p6)
      4. Kool and the Gang lasted well into the disco era in the late 1970s
        • "Ladies' Night" (r1 p8, 1979)
        • "Celebration" (r1 p1, 1980) both popular party band staples
      5. Both Kool and the Gang and Ohio players used Sly Stone's stylistic blending concepts
        • Catchy vocal hooks
        • Funky rhythmic grooves
    • Tower of Power
      1. Oakland-based band known for hard-driving rhythms and strong horn section
      2. Often played on other artists' recordings
        • Elton John
        • Rolling Stones
        • Rod Stewart
      3. Well known in the San Francisco hippie scene
      4. Racially integrated band
        • White
        • Latino
        • Black
      5. Several moderately successful albums through the early 1970s
        • Bump City (r16, 1972)
        • Tower of Power (r11 p15, 1973)
        • Back to Oakland (r13 p26, 1974)
    • War
      1. From Los Angeles with musical roots in black music and Latino music
      2. Originally called the Nightriders, backing Deacon Jones (football player turned singer)
      3. Discovered by Animals former lead singer Eric Burton and two important friends
        • Danish harmonica player Lee Oskar
        • Producer Jerry Goldstein
      4. Burton recorded the album Burton Declares War (r47 p18, 1970) and left soon afterward
      5. The band went on to have more hits
        • All Day Music (r6 p16, 1971)
        • The World Is a Ghetto (r1 p1, 1973)
        • The most commercially successful album—it contained crossover hit singles
        • "The World Is a Ghetto" (r3 p7)
        • "Cisco Kid" (r5 p2)
    • Earth, Wind and Fire
      1. Formed by Maurice White in 1969
      2. Another long-lasting member was Philip Bailey
      3. Had several crossover hits during the 1970s
      4. A good example of their style was "Shining Star" (r1 p1, 1975)
        • Hard-driving funk groove inspired by Sly and the Family Stone
        • Sophisticated vocal harmonies and gritty solo singing
        • Rhythmic horn shots
        • Catchy chorus
    • The Commodores
      1. Influenced by Sly and the Family Stone
      2. Hired by Motown to open for Jackson 5 concerts in 1971
      3. "Brick House" (r4 p5, 1977) is an early example of their roots in funk
      4. Ballads written by singer Lionel Ritchie yielded the greatest commercial success
        • "Easy" (r1 p4, 1977)
        • "Three Times a Lady" (r1 p1, 1978)
  • Motown continues into the 1970s
    • The Temptations
      1. The Temptations went through changes in 1968
        • Lead singer David Ruffin was replaced by Dennis Edwards in 1968
        • Producer Norman Whitfield collaborated with writer Barrett Strong
        • Influenced by Sly and the Family Stone
        • "Cloud Nine" (p6 r2, 1968) exemplifies that influence
      2. Whitfield moved toward the groove-oriented track as heard in Sly and the Family Stone records
        • "I Can't Get Next to You" (r1 p1, 1969)
        • "Psychedelic Shack" (p7 r2, 1970)
        • "Ball of Confusion" (p3 r2, 1970)
      3. An exception was "Just My Imagination (Running Away with Me)" (r1 p1, 1971) : a gentle ballad
      4. Temptations moved toward more serious themes in the early 1970s "Papa Was a Rolling Stone" (p1 r5, 1972)
        • Dramatic and atmospheric
        • Focuses on problems within black urban life
        • String arrangement by Paul Riser
        • Whitfield's finest achievement as a producer
        • Built over a single repeated bass line
        • Almost seven minutes in length
      5. Whitfield was inspired by fellow Motown writer/producer/artist Marvin Gaye
    • Marvin Gaye in the 1970s
      1. Gaye produced one of the first concept albums in black pop: What's Going On (p6 r 1, 1971)
      2. That album contained several crossover hit singles
        • "What's Goin' On" (p2 r1, 1971)
        • "Mercy Mercy Me (The Ecology)" (p4 r1, 1971)
        • "Inner City Blues (Make Me Wanna Holler)" (p9 r1, 1971)
        • Addresses the problems of urban life
        • Less confrontational
        • Did not draw much funk orientation
      3. With this concept album approach Gaye infused the hippie aesthetic into Motown
      4. Gaye continued his success with middle-of-the-road hits throughout the 1970s
        • "Let's Get It On" (p1 r1, 1973)
        • "Got to Give It Up, Pt. 1" (with Diana Ross) (p1 r1, 1977)
    • Stevie Wonder
      1. Fused the elements of late 1960s hippie aesthetic with early 1970s funk-groove dance music
      2. Gained total artistic control over his productions at Motown
      3. Wonder wrote, produced, and played most of the instruments on his records
      4. Used complex arrangements on his records
        • Interesting blends of timbre
        • Extensive use of synthesizers
        • Lyrics that dealt with important social issues
      5. Wonder's albums came close to being concept albums
        • Songs tended to be related through themes
        • The album could be taken in as one complete entity
      6. Wonder's albums displayed a variety of musical styles and were commercial successes
        • Talking Book (p3 r1, 1972)
        • Innervisions (p4 r1, 1973)
        • Fulfillingness' First Finale (p1 r1, 1974)
        • Songs in the Key of Life (p1 r1, 1976)
        • Journey Through the Secret Life of Plants (p4 r4, 1979)
      7. "Livin' for the City" (p8 r1 1973) from Innervisions exemplifies these traits
        • Story of a poor, young, black boy from the country
        • Family saves up to send him to the city to make good
        • He gets duped into carrying dope for a dealer
        • He is arrested, convicted, and jailed
      8. Stevie Wonder received more radio airplay than any other black artist in the 1970s
      9. He incorporated into his songs elements found in progressive rock
        • Sophisticated melodies, harmonies, and timbres
        • Philosophical issues and topics relating to social issues
    • The Jackson 5
      1. A group of brothers from Gary, Indiana
      2. Lead singer was a preteen Michael Jackson
      3. They had several hits during the first half of the 1970s
        • "I Want You Back" (1969)
        • "ABC" (1970)
        • "The Love You Save" (1970)
        • "I'll Be There" (1970)
      4. They placed over a dozen more hits on the charts before leaving Motown
      5. The Jacksons (Gordy kept the Jackson 5 name) continued their success on Epic Records
      6. Michael became one of the most successful artists in the history of popular music
    • Rare Earth
      1. A white rock band from Detroit signed to Motown after it was relocated to Los Angeles
        • "Get Ready" (p4 r20, 1970)
        • Included on the album Get Ready (p 12)
        • Second side of the album features a twenty-one-minute version of the title track
  • The Philadelphia sound: Gamble and Huff
    • The rise of independent producers
      1. Leiber and Stoller developed the idea of the independent record producer in the late 1950s
        • They produced records for Atlantic as well as other labels
        • Phil Spector followed in their footsteps
        • Jerry Wexler produced exclusively for Atlantic and Stax artists distributed by Atlantic
      2. Leiber and Stoller ushered in a new era of freedom from producers
      3. Motown and Stax also developed a roster of independent producers
    • Kenny Gamble and Leon Huff began as independent producers in the mid to late 1960s
      1. Initially producing rhythm and blues records for independent labels
        • The Intruders: "(We'll Be) United" (r14, 1966) on the Gamble label
        • Archie Bell: "I Can't Stop Dancin'" (1968) on Atlantic
        • Wilson Pickett: "Don't Let the Green Grass Fool You" (1971) on Atlantic
      2. In the early 1970s CBS provided money to establish Philadelphia International
        • Devoted specifically to their records
        • Distributed through the CBS network
    • The Gamble and Huff approach
      1. Referred to as the "Philadelphia Sound"
        • Lyric vocals
        • Driving rhythm
        • Elegant string arrangements by Thom Bell and Bobby Martin
      2. In 1972 Philadelphia International began a series of hit releases
        • Billy Paul "Me and Mrs. Jones," (p1 r1, 1972)
      3. Two consistently successful acts were Harold Melvyn and the Blue Notes and the O' Jays
        • Harold Melvyn and the Blue Notes featured Teddy Pendergrass
        • Hits often limited to the rhythm and blues charts
      4. The O' Jays' singles regularly crossed over to the pop charts
      5. The O' Jays' "Back Stabbers" (r1 p3, 1972) exemplifies the Gamble and Huff sound
        • Dramatic solo piano opening
        • Latin-flavored groove
        • Overlaid with strings and brass
        • Hook-oriented chorus
        • Clear Motown influence
      6. The O' Jays song "Love Train" (p1 r1, 1973) was one of their most successful hits
      7. The Gamble and Huff house band was crucial to their success
        • MFSB (Mother Father Sister Brother)
        • They recorded the theme music for the TV show Soul Train
        • "TSOP" stood for "the sound of Philadelphia"
    • Thom Bell
      1. Thom Bell produced artists on a freelance basis
      2. The Spinners had been in Detroit the late 1950s
      3. They were signed to Motown during the 1960s
        • "It's a Shame" (r4 p14, 1970)
        • In 1972 they switched to Atlantic
      4. Bell produced a string of hit records while they were on Atlantic
        • "I'll Be Around" (r1 p3, 1972)
        • "Could It Be I'm Falling in Love" (r1 p4, 1972)
        • "They Just Can't Stop It (The Games People Play)" (r1 p5, 1975)
        • "Rubberband Man" (r1 p2, 1976)
      5. Bell produced the Philadelphia-based Stylistics for Avco Records
      6. Wrote many Stylistics hits with lyricist Linda Creed
        • "Betcha by Golly, Wow" (r2 p3, 1972)
        • "You Make Me Feel Brand New" (r5 p2, 1974)
        • Emphasis on upbeat themes and elegant string arrangements
    • Isaac Hayes
      1. Part of the writing-production team at Stax records in the 1960s
      2. Wrote and produced hits with David Porter for Sam and Dave
      3. First solo album: Hot Buttered Soul (r1 p8, 1969)
      4. Had six more number one rhythm and blues albums in a row
      5. Wrote and recorded "The Theme from Shaft" (r2 p1, 1971), for the movie Shaft
        • Film depicting black urban culture
        • The first film of this type was titled Sweet Sweetback's Badass Song in 1970
        • Films about black urban culture were called "Blaxploitation" films
      6. Hayes had a distinctive style
        • Ultra-cool vocal delivery
        • Part spoken and part sung
        • The wah-wah guitar in this song became associated with 1970s black pop
    • Curtis Mayfield
      1. Roots in 1960s rhythm and blues
      2. Former member of Chicago-based group the Impressions
        • "It's All Right" (r1 p4, 1963)
        • "We're a Winner" (r1 p14, 1968)
      3. Mayfield had a hit with his song "Freddy's Dead" (r2 p4, 1972)
        • Influence of Hayes and Sly
        • Smooth production of Philadelphia and Motown
        • High tenor voice soars
        • Wah-wah guitar and elegant strings
      4. Mayfield wrote and recorded "Superfly" (r5 p8, 1972) for the 1972 film Superfly
  • Funk
    • James Brown
      1. As with Sly Stone, Brown's funk was associated with black culture
      2. After the 1968 Martin Luther King assassination Brown promoted black pride
      3. Brown became one of the most important figures in black pop
      4. He also enjoyed some crossover success with white audiences
      5. Brown's hits continued into the first half of the 1970s
        • "Get Up (I Feel like Being a) Sex Machine (Part 1)" (p15 r2, 1970)
        • "Super Bad" (p13 r1, 1970)
        • "Hot Pants" (p15 r1, 1971)
      6. Brown was a strong advocate against drug abuse
        • "King Heroin" (p40 r6, 1972)
        • "Public Enemy #1"
        • Both songs delivered like a sermon rather than a song
      7. Brown's earlier work in the 1960s was a strong influence on many other black artists
      8. He refined his style in the 1970s
        • Emphasis on the rhythmic groove
        • Tight ensemble playing
        • Flamboyant approach to live performance
        • More emphasis on the rhythmic interlocking of guitar, bass, and drums
        • Horns play an important role in these
    • George Clinton
      1. George Clinton drew from accomplishments made by James Brown and Berry Gordy Jr.
        • James Brown surrounded himself with first-rate musicians
        • Berry Gordy proved that a black man could own his own record company
      2. Leader of the New Jersey-based group Parliaments
        • Aspired to be the next Temptations or Four Tops
        • Moved to Detroit
        • Clinton began recording under the name Funkadelic on a different label
      3. Parliament was the more commercial of the two groups
        • Parliament recorded on Casablanca Records
        • Funkadelic recorded on Westbound records, then moved to Warner's
      4. Funkadelic was more experimental with diverse influences
        • Psychedelic rock blended with soul
        • Jimi Hendrix
        • Sly Stone
        • Miles Davis
        • James Brown
        • Alice Cooper
        • Genesis
        • Outrageous stage costumes and wild stage antics
      5. Parliament was signed to Casablanca in 1974
      6. They released the first of several successful albums
        • Up for the Down Stroke (r17, 1974) was the first
      7. Mothership Connection (p13 r4, 1976) was the band's breakthrough record
        • Contained the hit "Tear the Roof off the Sucker (Give up the Funk)" (p15 r5)
        • Tour featured elaborate stage show that included a spaceship descending onto the stage
        • Clinton played the character he called Dr. Funkenstein
        • Clinton infused a comic-book quality into Parliament shows and albums
      8. Clinton drew on concepts present in white rock
        • Concept albums
        • Wit, irony, and humor
        • Theater aspects of rock
      9. Clinton was also working with Funkadelic at this same time—late 1970s
      10. Funkadelic had success on the rhythm and blues charts
        • "One Nation Under a Groove" went to number 1 it to (r1 p 16, 1978)
        • "Uncle Jam Wants You" (r2 p18, 1979)
        • Clinton was songwriting and producing on these records
      11. Extremely talented musicians were added—some from James Brown's band
        • Sax player Maceo Parker
        • Bassist Bootsy Collins
      12. Clinton used his success to get record deals for members of his bands
      13. Clinton became one of the most influential black pop artists in the late 1970s
    • Average White Band
      1. Got airplay on white rock radio
      2. From Scotland
      3. They had several hits through the last part of the 1970s
        • First album, Average White Band, hit number one in the fall of 1974
        • Single "Pick Up the Pieces" went to number one on the singles chart
        • The album Cut the Cake (p4, 1975)
        • The album Soul Searching (p8, 1976)
      4. Many white rock listeners were unaware of funk beyond what this band did
  • Reggae
    • Origins and Influences
      1. Originated in Jamaica
      2. Influential on later styles
        • Punk
        • Rap
      3. Jamaican music was present in music of the 1940s and 1950s
      4. Americans enjoyed calypso music in the 1950s
      5. Jamaicans were discovering American rhythm and blues at that same time
        • Jamaican radio was modeled after conservative BBC format
        • In the 1950s portable radios became more affordable
        • Jamaicans began listening to American music broadcast from New Orleans
      6. American records were difficult to get
      7. Appearance of the "sound system man"
        • An entrepreneur who played records through powerful amplifiers from the back of a truck
        • He would play records for whoever wanted hear the music in local towns
      8. Competition drove these disk-jockeys to remove labels from records for anonymity
      9. They began to talk over the records as well as play the music
        • Invented rhyming verses
        • Rhyming was part of the competition factor
        • Called "Toasting"
        • This approach to performance was the origin of rap
    • Evolution of Jamaican music
      1. During the 1960s New Orleans rhythm and blues died out
        • The style had been exemplified by Fats Domino and Dr. Longhair
        • Jamaicans created their own version of it called ska
        • Ska was replaced by a style called "rock steady"
        • Rock steady led to what is known as reggae
      2. Reggae rhythms were more syncopated than rhythm and blues rhythmic structures
    • Bob Marley
      1. Most important of the reggae musicians in the 1970s
      2. Member of a 1960s vocal trio called the Wailers
        • Peter Tosh
        • Bunny Livingston
      3. Signed by Jamaican producer Lee "Scratch" Perry
      4. Recorded using backing band, the Upsetters
      5. Chris Blackwell established Island Records in the UK
        • Released records recorded in Jamaica for the British market
        • Substantial subculture of Jamaicans living in England
        • Reggae in the UK during the early 1970s influenced many of the English musicians
        • These musicians later ended up in punk and new-wave bands
      6. Blackwell signed the Wailers to Island
      7. First album, Catch a Fire, released in the spring of 1973
      8. Followed by Burnin' later in 1973
        • "Get 'Up Stand Up'" appeared on Burnin'
        • Representative example of Bob Marley's approach to reggae
        • The track is built on a groove laid down by the bass and drums
        • Emphasis on the upbeats
        • Verse and chorus are built on similar but slightly different bass lines
        • Group vocals on the chorus and solo vocals during the verses
        • The focus in reggae is on the message of the lyrics
        • These lyrics advocate political freedom
    • Two important events brought reggae closer to the mainstream
      1. The independent film The Harder They Come
        • The rise and fall of a fictional pop singer in Jamaica
        • The movie became a popular cult attraction
        • Soundtrack featured tracks by Jimmy Cliff (starring in the movie)
        • Other Jamaican artists included Toots and the Maytals
      2. The second event: Eric Clapton covered Marley's "I Shot the Sheriff"
        • The song had been on Burnin '
        • Clapton's version topped the charts in the summer of 1974 (uk9, 1974)
        • Clapton' s fans became interested in Marley's music
      3. Bob Marley became highly revered
        • As a musician
        • As a kind of cultural hero and fighter for political and social justice
      4. Marley developed cancer and passed away in 1981
    • The parallel of reggae with 1950s rock and roll and electric blues
      1. American rock and roll and rhythm and blues went out of style
      2. British bands brought it back rearranged with a new sound
        • British Invasion blues revival bands
        • Beatles
        • Rolling Stones
      3. New Orleans rhythm and blues and 1960s soul music also died out
      4. Those styles were transformed by Jamaicans
      5. Returned to the United States in the form of reggae
      6. Therefore reggae resembles black pop in its influences from earlier black styles
  • The rise of disco
    • Rock was for listening in the 1970s
      1. The hippie aesthetic dominated the overall approach to rock music
        • Live bands were preferred to disk-jockeys in clubs and bars
        • DJs considered a budget approach to entertainment
        • Dancing was still a central element within black pop
      2. Clubs featuring DJs playing records all night appeared in the gay community
        • Rock musicians avoided gay clubs
        • Records provided an alternative to live music for gay clubs
      3. Songs from the disco scene began to hit the charts in the mid 1970s
        • Barry White's Love Unlimited Orchestra scored with "Love's Theme" (r10 p1, 1974)
        • Lush strings in the disco mix
        • George McCrae's "Rock Your Baby" (r 1 p1, 1974)
        • Van McCoy's "The Hustle" (r1 p1, 1975)
        • Florida's KC and the Sunshine Band "That's the Way I Like It" (r1 p1, 1975)
      4. Disco songs had some elements in common
        • Direct dance beat with a frequently repeated catchy hook
        • Viewed as novelty tunes
    • The breakthrough of disco into the mainstream
      1. The disco scene was the backdrop for the 1977 film Saturday Night Fever
        • Starring John Travolta
        • Soundtrack songs by the Bee Gees became disco staples
        • "Stayin' Alive" (r4 p1, 1978)
        • "Night Fever" (r8 p1, 1978)
      2. Major rock artists released disco-flavored tracks
        • Rod Stewart ("Do You Think I'm Sexy")
        • Rolling Stones ("Miss You")
        • Even Kiss ("I Was Made for Loving You")
      3. There was a disco version of the first movement of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony!
      4. Extended disco mixes began selling in significant numbers
      5. Quincy Jones produced Michael Jackson's 1979 album Off The Wall
        • The album contained "Don't Stop 'Til You Get Enough" (r1 p1, 1979)
        • The beginning of a successful collaboration through the 1980s
    • The return of the producers
      1. Disco returned the authority to producers
        • During the 1970s musicians had gained control of the sound of their records
        • Producers were present but it was a collaborative approach
      2. Brill Building or Motown models were used to make disco records
        • Singers were not important
        • Focus was on the song and its beat
      3. Producer Jacques Morali assembled the Village People's "YMCA" (r16 p2, 1978)
        • Playful slant on life in the gay underground
        • Heralding the YMCA as a place where young gay men can meet
    • The Euro-disco style
      1. Munich-based producers Giorgio Moroder and Pete Bellotte produced Donna Summer's hits
        • "I Love to Love You Baby" (r3 p2, 1976)
        • Flaunts sensual aspects of disco dancing
      2. Euro-disco artists used electronically generated beats
        • Silver Convention
        • Kraftwerk
    • Why white rock fans hated disco:
      1. Rock fans were upset when disco emerged into the mainstream
      2. There are many theories as to why rock fans hated disco—all with rational counter-arguments
        • Origins of disco in the gay community
        • Knowledge of its origins was not known until much later
        • Post-Saturday Night Fever disco facilitated (heterosexuals) meeting at bars for quick one-night stands
        • Rock had always been about promiscuity in one way or another
        • Disco music was a result of racial misunderstanding
        • White rock fans associated disco with black pop
        • Black artists disliked disco too—particularly George Clinton
      3. More feasible reasons for rock fans disliking disco include
        • Disco was about dancing rather than listening
        • Not concerned with important spiritual or social issues
        • Disco was not about the specific artist
        • Disco was about the beat often provided by a machine
        • Rock fans rejected the anti-hippie aesthetic of disco


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