JAZZ: Scott DeVeaux, W.W. Norton & Company

RUNNING TIME, 1:42

And finally art music, people . . . don't think about how black musicians are trained in European classical music. They usually have to give it up because there really isn't space in American classical orchestras or chamber music for black musicians in that period. In fact, there's really not that much room for Americans period because most of the orchestras – I think the New York Philharmonic conducted its rehearsals in German, you know, because most of the musicians were German. But out of that they bring some important things. They bring the idea that the music is supposed to be paid attention to. Not just with quiet, but also with a certain amount of social respect, and they bring that to their performances in ways that I think are very interesting to observe throughout the history of jazz. Eventually it gets to the point where jazz is heard on the concert stage and people acquire a way of listening to it that seems appropriate to the music.

But for black musicians especially, as they're seeing themselves as art musicians they have the idea of classical music as a mode of behavior that they can relate to, and they know audiences can relate to them with. And, of course, there's also things like the marching band, where they are also in a way playing from music. It's kind of like the people's orchestra of the, around 1900, John Phillip Sousa. A lot of black musicians, as well, come from that kind of environment and, of course, from there, a lot of the instruments for early jazz come.