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Chapter
17
Jazz, rock, and Beyond
Chapter Outline

The emergence of rock in the 1960s pushes jazz to the margins and makes it inevitable that some musicians will try to win a place for themselves in this huge new market. There are obstacles (electric amplification, new dance grooves, the presence of singers, the dominance of guitars), but by focusing on soul music, a new so-called fusion of jazz and rock takes its place on stage and in recordings. We examine early fusion, leading up to Miles Davis's Bitches Brew, and consider the 1970s bands led by his former sidemen (Herbie Hancock, Chick Corea, John McLaughlin, Weather Report) as well as youthful rock-era people like Pat Metheny and Jaco Pastorious. We look at the music on the ECM label and the unusual "fusion" of people like Keith Jarrett and Oregon. We address the creation of "smooth jazz" in the 1980s and explain the surprising success of Kenny G. In the 1990s, hip-hop and jazz come to share a fusion, as do jazz and rave music, sometimes known as "acid jazz." Finally, we see the contemporary scene, enlivened by new groups that take their roots in the organ trios of the 1950s and 1960s.

  1. Growth of Rock and Roll
    1. During the 1950s, rock and roll-a mix of the rhythms of rhythm and blues with the sound of hillbilly music-led by Elvis Presley, Chuck Berry, Little Richard and others, started drawing large numbers of white teenagers.
    2. Jazz musicians considered it immature and a fad, unlike jazz, which had a history and an adult sensibility.
    3. By the 1960s, rock overwhelmed both pop and jazz, resulting in much less work for jazz musicians. Fusion-a pop-jazz mixture-was viewed as one answer and was assumed to be the next phase of jazz. But it wasn't; fusion was replaced by "smooth" or "contemporary" jazz.
  2. Jazz-Rock Background
    1. Rock and roll was a new source of popular songs, many of them written by a coterie of New York songwriters who aimed for the teenage market and characterized by puerile lyrics and relatively unsophisticated harmonies.
    2. The late 1950s also saw a folk revival that brought a simpler moralistic aesthetic to popular music, part of which was to eschew "commercial" music.
    3. In 1964, British groups like the Beatles and the Rolling Stones:
      1. Revived pop styles of the 1959s, including urban blues, along with an anti-establishment attitude.
      2. Established the singer-songwriter as a mainstay of pop music, leaving jazz musicians out in the cold, although they did try to play some of this music with a jazz approach.
    4. This change did not occur overnight: songwriters still wrote pop "standards," and Broadway supplied hit songs, which jazz musicians continued to mine. But even this source dried up.
    5. Record sales grew astronomically due to rock, which eventually swallowed up other genres.
  3. The Challenge to Jazz
    1. By the late 1960s, album-oriented, loose, improvisational, blues-based rock became popular; some people compared it to a kind of electrified jazz. Jimi Hendrix exemplifies this trend.
    2. Some groups, like Blood Sweat and Tears, started using saxophones and trumpets in their bands as well as some jazz repertoire. Who needed jazz musicians?
    3. The resulting obstacles for jazz musicians can be classified into six categories:
      1. Youth: the new young, relatively well-off generation wanted to listen to musicians who were also young, not older jazz musicians who had been honing their art for decades.
      2. Electronics: amplifications and electronic manipulation of sound produced a whole new range of to timbres with which jazz musicians found it difficult to keep up.
      3. Recording: Rock depended on studio production techniques, something that many jazz musicians disdained, believing that recordings should re-create the live sound of a band.
      4. Rhythm: by the 1960s rock was played in an even-eighths groove as opposed to a swing groove. Many jazz musicians refused to adjust on aesthetic grounds, or found it difficult to adjust even if they wanted to.
      5. Groups: rock focused on the group in contrast to jazz, which focused more on each contributing musician. Jazz eventually developed a group-oriented creative process.
      6. Virtuosity: since the time of bebop, jazz musicians had been expected to have a high level of virtuosity. Rock musicians disdained this capability in favor of a "do-it-yourself" ethic of folk and blues, which shifted focus from the individual musicians to the band, song, and songwriter.
  4. Funk
    1. Fusion eventually met each one of these obstacles. The answer came from the contemporary version of "race music": funk (soul).
    2. Soul music dates from the 1950s, when Ray Charles used religious grooves in secular music and when soul-jazz artists such as Horace Silver and Jimmy Smith emphasized backbeats. The new funk is exemplified by James Brown's polyrhythmic arrangements (1965).
    3. In funk, each layer is more independent than in rock, allowing each player to play more inventively: drummers had to switch to a funk groove from swing; bassists could play more syncopated lines, and soloists played lines that fit into the overall texture.
    4. Funk allowed for more sophisticated, chromatically colored harmony and modal playing since it often featured long stretches of one chord.
    5. Funk was dance music, allowing young musicians to explore sophisticated jazz harmony while the dance beat kept audiences happy.
  5. Breaking Down Barriers
    1. 1967: jazz was in crisis; Coltrane died, clubs were closing, concerts were drying up, and the press was starting to take rock more seriously. Young jazz musicians needed to adjust to the change.
    2. One of the first groups to bridge the gap was led by saxophonist Charles Lloyd, who went to school in California, where a flourishing jam-band scene set the stage for his break into the youth-oriented music scene under the guidance of manager George Avakian.
    3. San Francisco was characterized by loose cultural boundaries, allowing Lloyd's group (with a young Keith Jarrett and Jack Dejohnette) to play alongside Hendrix or the Grateful Dead even though it sounded like many other jazz groups at the time.
    4. 1968: Miles's drummer Tony Williams started a group with British guitarist John McLaughlin and organist Larry Young called Emergency, which revived the organ trio setting but this time with more of a harmonic, improvisatory, and timbral edge, pointing the way to the basis for fusion.
  6. The Davis Breakthrough
    1. 1968: Miles had grown tired of post-bop jazz and was listening to Sly and the Family Stone and the Fifth Dimension.
    2. This change could have been due to Miles's young wife, Betty Marbry, a fashion model and musician who was up on the newest youth-oriented cultural scene.
    3. Miles was looking for a simpler, less-abstract style, which he heard in the Chicago blues of Muddy Waters.
    4. Davis electrified his rhythm section by bringing in Dave Holland on electric bass (Ron Carter didn't like electric bass) and Chick Corea on electric piano. He also got Gil Evans, whose band was moving in the same direction, to write some arrangements.
    5. The results can be heard on Filles de Kilamanjaro (1968), which is characterized by a combination of bass ostinati, modal jazz, and floating harmonies over a steady beat. Davis made it clear that this went beyond "jazz."
  7. In a Silent Way
    1. The addition of the electric guitar of John McLaughlin added the missing link. Part of the recording was made over a surreptitiously recorded E major chord (a simplification of Joe Zawinul's original chord progression), catching the spontaneous interaction.
    2. Davis edited what he saw as the raw material produced in the studio. Producer Teo Macero was Davis's partner in this regard. Macero was given a free hand to edit and recombine the hours of recording made in the studio to make two long tracks for In a Silent Way.
  8. Bitches Brew
    1. Davis liked to leave lots of room for his band to improvise textures in a context of "controlled freedom." By the end of the 1960s, Davis was playing with large ensembles of young musicians and with doubled or even tripled rhythm-section instruments to create a dense but light texture in a style he insisted was "black" more than rock.
    2. Davis's label, Columbia Records, moved toward rock but kept Miles in its stable because of his cultural capital. Davis saw how tastes were changing and wanted Columbia to move him out of the jazz category.
    3. Bitches Brew (1969) did just that. Although it could never be considered a "commercial" album because of the length of each piece (even after post-production editing), the harmonic dissonance, and dense texture, it found a niche on album-oriented rock stations and sold 500,000 copies in its first year. Bitches Brew heralded the arrival of "fusion."
  9. Miles's Musicians through the Years
    1. Davis played with many musicians who went on to have important careers in jazz. The authors provide two lists: one for the years 1968-1971 and one for the 1970s.
  10. Mahavishnu
    1. Bitches Brew launched fusion but could not act as a model for other musicians. It was the Mahavishnu Orchestra with its electric guitar focus that shaped fusion.
    2. Mahvishnu was created by John McLaughlin (b. 1942), a British guitarist influenced by black bluesmen like Muddy Waters and Leadbelly, the technical virtuosity of flamenco, jazz guitarists Django Reinhardt and Tal Farlow, and 1960s rock.
    3. Drummer Tony Williams invited him to New York in 1969, where he played with Williams and Miles. He became fascinated with Eastern religion and the teaching of Sri Chimnoy in particular. As a result he immersed himself in Indian classical music, with its sophisticated system of meter (tala) and improvisation. By 1970, with fusion as the hot music, he made two commercially successful albums-The Inner Mounting Flame (1972) and Birds of Fire (1973)-making the music of a jazz musician competitive with rock.
    4. The music was loud, fast, virtuosic (raising the bar for rock guitarists), intense, and distorted, much like concert rock and not like club jazz. The band included both rock and jazz musicians.
    5. It was also inventive, with complicated meters inspired by tala, often in odd-numbered meters and slash chords, that is, triads over bass roots outside the chord, resulting in dissonant harmonies.
  11. Chick Corea (b. 1941) and Return to Forever
    1. Used the Mahavishnu Orchestra's style as a way of entering the fusion field in an artistically and commercially satisfying way with his group Return to Forever.
    2. Corea learned jazz by transcribing the voicings of Horace Silver and the solos of Bud Powell. He loved Latin music, Davis's fusion, and avant-garde jazz. After leaving Davis in 1970 he joined Anthony Braxton for six albums, after which he began to find free improvisation alienating. He became a Scientologist and then formed Return to Forever in 1972, dabbling in fusion and Brazilian styles of music.
    3. After hearing Mahvishnu, Corea wanted to play a more dramatic and intense music. He started playing synthesizers and hired guitarist Bill Connors and then Al DiMeola, a technically spectacular player. Corea wrote the music for the group.
  12. Weather Report
    1. This group was the longest-lasting (fifteen years), as well as one of the most successful, commercially and artistically, of the fusion bands. It also centered on Davis alumni, in this case Joe Zawinul and Wayne Shorter.
    2. Shorter was with Davis during the 1960s, led his own post-bop groups, recorded copiously, and wrote many compositions. He composed for and played sax in Weather Report, although his playing was often submerged in the texture of the pieces.
    3. An Austrian World War II survivor and the mainstay of the group, Joe Zawinul came to the United States in 1959. He played for Dinah Washington before joining Cannonball Adderley's band as the only white musician.
    4. Zawinul first started to use the electric piano in the mid-1960s after hearing Ray Charles. He used it on Adderley's biggest hit, "Mercy, Mercy, Mercy." He mastered the synthesizer and even created his own timbres, which he preferred to the instrument's preset sounds.
    5. The band moved away from free-jazz improvisation and textures to African American pop grooves during the mid-1970s when they hired a new bass player, Jaco Pastorius.
    6. He did not play acoustic bass, only electric bass, an instrument not particularly well-suited for jazz because of its muddy sound. Motown bassist James Jameson found a way to clarify the sound, making it more suitable for jazz.
    7. Pastorius removed the frets from the standard electric bass and created a singing sound on the instrument. He established his jazz "cred" (credibility) and his virtuosic leadership by playing the notoriously difficult "Donna Lee" on his first album.
    8. In Weather Report, Pastorius played melodic lines like a guitar player and attracted a young white audience. The band's 1976 recording Heavy Weather was a best seller and featured "Birdland," a Zawinul composition.
  13. "Teen Town"
    1. Named after a Miami neighborhood. Pastorius plays bass and drums here over an ambiguous chord progression of major triads. It sounds improvised but it is mostly composed.
    2. Much of the performance is in the form of dialogs between Pastorius and Shorter and Pastorius and Zawinul. The dialogue opens up near the end of the piece, a section that is extended in live performance.
    3. After a few years with Weather Report, Pastorius started using drugs heavily. By 1982 he suffered from mental illness. Eventually homeless, he was beaten badly in 1987 while trying to break into a club in Fort Lauderdale (his hometown). He died a week, later at age thirty-five.
  14. Chameleon: Herbie Hancock (b. 1940)
    1. Hancock was a complex postbop pianist and composer who, in the 1970s, created a popular, relatively simple funk-jazz mixture that was held together by extended, syncopated bass lines ( like Corea).
    2. Pianist Keith Jarrett, who despised rock and its electronic accoutrements, made some very popular recordings, including The Koln Concert, by also using extended repetitions of gospel grooves and ostinati.
    3. Chameleon-like, Hancock keeps several careers going at once: postbop pianist, 1970s funk pop performer, 1980s hip-hop fusion artist, duo pianist with Sting, Christina Aguilera, and Josh Groban. In concert he is as likely to play acoustic jazz on a Steinway as he is contemporary R & B on the innovative "keytar."
    4. Early Years
      1. Born in Chicago, while young he played classical music as well as R & B. He learned a bluesy jazz style by listening to Oscar Peterson and Bill Evans and developed a good ear for harmony. In the 1960s he composed and played on modal pieces like "Maiden Voyage" and slash chord-based pieces such as "Dolphin Dance."
      2. He always had an ear for pop music, writing the hit "Watermelon Man," which was recorded by Mongo Santamaria.
      3. After leaving Davis in 1970 he followed up on his fascination with electronic keyboards, which he was introduced to by Davis. He formed an experimental group that played postbop music combined with unusual textures created by synthesizers. Everyone in the band adopted African names.
      4. The band struggled. During his meditations as part of his practice of Buddhism, Hancock realized that he really liked funk and decided to try it.
    5. Headhunters
      1. His new band included funk musicians Harvy Mason (drums), Paul Jackson (bass), and percussionist Bill Summers, who played West African percussion. They recorded in 1974. "Chameleon" from that album, consisting of a bass line, clave, a couple of chords, and layers of electric keyboard sounds, was a big hit.
      2. Some criticized the album for being bad funk (Lester Bowie). Later, Hancock fruitfully combined the complexity of jazz with the simplicity of funk grooves on the albums Thrust (1974) and Man-Child (1975).
      3. During the 1970s he also made some lame, repetitive recordings. Then in the early 1980s he heard some hip-hop tapes by the group Material. He added a melody and released it as "Rockit" in 1983. It became an underground success complete with a video on MTV. Now, Hancock is a familiar presence in the pop world.
  15. Keith Jarrett (b. 1945)
    1. An idiosyncratic performer, he vocalizes and gyrates while he plays, and he is notoriously intolerant of distractions during performances. Nevertheless, he has a wide audience.
    2. Born in Pennsylvania, he was a classical music prodigy. He went to Berklee in Boston and played with Art Blakey's Messengers, Charles Lloyd, and Miles Davis. Even though he hated fusion, he liked what Miles was doing.
    3. The Koln Concert
      1. Jarrett recorded a number of long solo piano concerts. The best known is The Koln Concert (1975), which is a double LP and is one of the best-selling jazz recordings of all time even though, according to Jarrett, the piano was wrong, the food was wrong, and he hadn't slept in two days.
      2. This recording was noticed by non-jazz fans, who were attracted by the mixes of jazz and gospel, folk, and other kinds of music. This inspired a number of "new age" pianists. Jarrett claims that playing is a spiritual experience. He has recorded concerts in Milan, Tokyo, and New York (2005).
    4. American and European Concerts
      1. His non-solo work ranges over classical music, various kinds of keyboard instruments, avant-garde improvisation, spiritual practices, and folk-rock.
      2. 1970s: Jarrett played with two groups, an American group that played avant-garde jazz (Charlie Haden, Dewey Redman, and Paul Motian) and gospel and in which he often played other instruments, and a European group ( Jan Garbarek, Jon Chrisensen, Palle Daneilson-all Scandinavian), which played less abrasively than the American group.
  16. "Long as You Know You're Living Yours"
    1. Recorded in Oslo, this is a gospel-inspired piece, starting on a vamp in F, with shifting harmonies, a slippery rhythm, and an open-ended form
    2. It then shifts to more dissonant repetitive harmonies over a pedal point, which underpins Garbarek's modal improvisation, eventually returning to the deceptively simple opening melody.
  17. Pat Metheny (b. 1954)
    1. Fusion entered a new stage with a new generation who had been brought up on pop and rock music.
    2. Metheny originally learned all Wes Montgomery's techniques but was also influenced by the music of Dylan, the Beatles, the country music of Waylon Jennings, and bossa nova.
    3. He made his first recording as a teenager in 1975 with Jaco Pastorius (Bright Size Life). His sound is warm and rich, with broad melodic lines, which he plays on original compositions. He composed with pianist Lyle Mays, with whom he started the Pat Metheny group in 1977 to play fusion.
    4. Metheny reclaimed the guitar for jazz for his generation. The sound is often very electronic but also very melodic and informed by the jazz tradition.
    5. He also recorded free jazz with Charlie Haden and Dewey Redman on 80/81, and in 1985 he recorded with Ornette Coleman (Song X), adding a "harmolodic" layer to the texture
  18. World Music
    1. Fusion also uses music outside the United States.
    2. Jan Garbarek is a good example. Growing up in Norway, he became fascinated with Coltrane's use of Third World music in the 1960s; the ideas of trumpeter Don Cherry, who defied ethnic stereotyping and insisted that Norwegian music be taken seriously; and the inclusive theoretical approach of George Russell, who had moved to Oslo. Garbarek became a jazz ethnomusicologist, learning folk songs and using them in his music, which he refused to call jazz.
    3. Paul Winter Consort
      1. Winter took on the entire earth as a resource. As a jazz saxophonist, he became entranced by the music of Latin America and especially Brazil. In 1967 his band became the Paul Winter Consort, a name evoking diversity. He soon began using wolf howls and the singing of humpbacked whales as sources on recordings such as Common Ground (1978). He has also recorded in sacred spaces and in the wilderness.
    4. Oregon
      1. A breakaway group from the Consort that included composer Ralph Towner, Oregon was formed in 1970 and for more than thirty years has pioneered fusion and world music.
      2. Each musician plays a number instruments: Towner is mainly on six- and twelve-string guitar but also trumpet, piano, and even French horn; Glen Moore is mainly on bass but also violin and flute; Paul McCandless is on oboe (rare in jazz); and percussionist Colin Walcott is on tabla and sitar.
      3. Oregon exemplifies serene, intricate, and interactive New Age jazz.
      4. Different world groups specialize in different musics, such as India (Shakti with John McLaughlin and Zakir Hussein); jazz, bluegrass, and old-time (Bela Fleck, David Grisman, Turtle Island String Quartet); and European ( New Jungle Orchestra).
  19. Smooth Jazz
    1. One of Bill Clinton's favorite saxophonists is Kenny G, an exemplar of smooth jazz.
    2. The term first appeared in the 1980s but the style, consisting of an inoffensive blending of jazz and upbeat R & B and funk, dates back to the 1960s and 1970s with Wes Montgomery's renditions of Beatles songs, which were produced by Creed Taylor. Taylor's CTI Records recorded George Benson, Quincy Jones, and Nat Adderley with orchestrations by Don Sebesky, all, more or less, in a style that mixed pop and jazz.
    3. 1970s: found a mass audience with albums by Grover Washington Jr., George Benson, Donald Byrd (former hard-bop player), and the Crusaders ( formerly the Jazz Crusaders).
    4. The audience was affluent, well educated, and increasingly post-civil rights era, conservative, African American professionals.
  20. The Radio Effect
    1. This music was radio driven. By the late 1980s, a new category of radio emerged called "new adult contemporary," "jazz lite," "quiet storm," or "smooth jazz," and pioneered by a Los Angeles radio station known as the Wave. The target audience was affluent twenty-five- to forty-four-year-olds who wanted something less abrasive than rock but did not want to make the leap to jazz. In 1987 Billboard introduced a "contemporary jazz" category for this music.
    2. Kenneth Gorelick, or Kenny G, is the wildly popular king of smooth jazz although some jazz musicians consider his music "lame noodling."
    3. Smooth jazz has done away with the real-time interactivity of jazz by using pop-music recording techniques of overdubbing layers of music one at a time.
    4. But it does reach a wide audience of people who would not have otherwise heard any jazz.
  21. Jam Bands, Acid Jazz, Hip-hop
    1. Smooth jazz is consumed through recordings and radio play but other kinds of fusion are not.
    2. Jam Band Jazz
      1. Roots of this music come from the 1960s, especially the long improvisations of the rock group the Grateful Dead.
      2. Phish is a more contemporary version of a band devoted to open-ended improvisation, but not a jazz band. Its audience is much larger than any jazz band. Guitarist Charlie Hunter is another example.
      3. Medeski, Martin and Wood (MMW)
        1. Phish helped publicize this trio, which was started by classical pianist John Medeski. He eventually left classical music and went to the New England Conservatory of Music, where he met bassist Chris Wood and then drummer Billy Martin at a gig.
        2. Starting out as a piano trio in New York, they started to tour in the early 1990s, playing on the same gigs as rock bands like Los Lobos and Dave Matthews and free gigs at the Knitting Factory in New York. Medeski soon started playing an array of electronic keyboards, each with its own amplifier.
        3. Medeski does not like the term "jam band," but it fits their music. It builds on grooves of earlier fusion groups. The group put their concerts on their Web site. Many of the recordings have been shaped by hip-hop artists.
  22. "Chank"
    1. In 1998, guitarist John Scofield, who played with Miles in the 1980s, asked MMW to play on his next recording. Scofield plays with a distorted blues sound and usually with a neo-funk groove. He came to MMW because he was "bebopped out,"
    2. MMW played on Scofield's A Go Go album, for which Scofield composed the pieces as vehicles for improvisation.
    3. "Chank" is a tribute to James Brown's guitarist. Scofield's part was a James Brown-like rhythm line.
    4. The form is also derived from Brown's practice: a modal A section followed by a bridge where each soloist can play as long as they want. The album sold well, jump-starting Scofield's career.
  23. Acid Jazz
    1. The term comes from the English rave scene, when DJ Chris Bangs decided to play an alternative to the usual repetitive, bass-oriented, hypnotic electronic music for dancers. Instead, he played soul-jazz tracks. "Acid house" suddenly became "acid jazz." This was a pathway for young people into the jazz tradition-a tradition much different from the modernist concept of jazz tradition.
    2. Acid jazz revivified soul jazz, which was on the fringes during the period of Coltrane, Mingus, and Coleman. Some saw soul jazz as trivial and too commercial, although at the fringes it wouldn't go away. DJs looking for new music found it on old vinyl recordings, which they used to make acid jazz.
    3. Some acid jazz ensembles sound like 1970s soul bands (Brand New Heavies). Others, like the Groove Collective, sit on the jazz-pop borderline. On the one hand, they use a DJ and base their grooves on hip-hop; on the other, there are good jazz improvisations.
    4. "Rentstrike" starts out with what seems like a bebop recording of the 1940s. It then moves into a contemporary dance groove based on two ambiguous chords behind short solos.
  24. Jazz/Hip-hop
    1. Hip-hop is the latest music to inform fusion. Starting in Brooklyn during the 1970s and spreading worldwide in the 1980s, it did not have much impact on jazz musicians (Hancock's "Rockit" is an exception) and, unlike jazz, was countercultural, youth-oriented, and in touch with black street life.
    2. Two things had to occur for this fusion to work:
      1. Hip-hop musicians had to start listening to jazz. Early examples include Digable Planets and A Tribe Called Quest, who started sampling their parents' Blue Note recordings. In 1994, Us3 had a big hit with "Cantaloop (Flip Fantasia)," a transformed version of Hancock's "Cantaloupe Island." Blue Notes' sales rose.
      2. Jazz musicians had to find a way to use hip-hop. The financial incentive was very clear. Older jazz soloists were put together with hip-hop tracks. Stolen Moments was one such example, mixing Lester Bowie with Digable Planets and Ron Carter with MC Solaar.
    3. The nature of the mix of hip-hop and jazz depended on who was in charge: hip-hop artists kept short sample loops of jazz in the background (Jazzmatazz by Guru), while jazzers did the opposite ( Branford Marsalis's group Buckshot LeFonque).
  25. Miles to Go
    1. Miles continued to record interlocking, bass-heavy, layered, street-oriented fusion, to mostly negative reaction from the critics. These albums (On the Corner, Big Fun, Get Up with It) were seen as foreshadowing techno music.
    2. He went into semiretirement in 1975 due mainly to ill health but returned in 1980 to tour and record, finding a more suitable way of playing for both himself and his audience.
    3. In live performance, Miles played very little, mostly from a pop music repertoire, and dressed (at least to some) extravagantly, alienating older jazz fans. But he still attracted superb young players.
  26. "Tutu"
    1. In 1985 Miles left Columbia, annoyed over its preferential treatment of Wynton Marsalis. He signed with Warner Brothers to a huge advance but had to give up half of the copyright income. It was at this time that Miles became fascinated with the musician Prince and wanted to feature him on his album.
    2. Bassist, arranger, and producer Marcus Miller was brought in to help make the album.
    3. None of the musicians Davis was working with at the time appear on this album. Davis responded to synthesizer and drum machine tracks presented to him in the studio, a method that, in some ways, was reminiscent of the Gil Evans collaborations. Davis is clearly the central musician on this album.
    4. The track was recorded in a single take with only a few edits. It was named after Desmond Tutu.
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