Chapter Study Outline

  1. Renaissance Style
    1. Golden age of a cappella style
      1. imitative polyphony
      2. harmony: fuller chords, 3rds and 6ths
      3. carefully controlled dissonance
      4. duple meter
    2. Early Renaissance (1450–1520)
      1. Belgium, northern France: Du Fay, Josquin
    3. Later Renaissance (1520–1600)
      1. Italy: Palestrina, Gabrieli
  2. The Early Renaissance Mass
    1. Ordinary, fixed portion, set to music
      1. Kyrie
      2. Gloria
      3. Credo
      4. Sanctus
      5. Agnus Dei
    2. Cantus firmus (fixed melody)
      1. entire mass based on one melody
      2. Gregorian chant or popular song
  3. Du Fay and the Cantus Firmus Mass
    1. Guillaume Du Fay (c. 1397–1474)
      1. Franco-Flemish composer
      2. career in Italy and France
      3. well-defined melodies; clear-cut rhythms
    2. Listening Guide 8: Du Fay, L’homme armé Mass (The Armed Man Mass), Kyrie (1460s)
      1. four-part, a cappella chorus
      2. cantus firmus: L’homme armé, popular tune
      3. polyphonic, but not imitative
      4. three sections: slow triple meter, duple, triple meter
      5. harmony: medieval, and fuller 3rds and 6ths of Renaissance
  4. The Motet in the Renaissance
    1. Motet: became sacred form
      1. single Latin text
      2. used in the Mass
      3. praise of the Virgin Mary
      4. three, four, or more voices of equal importance
      5. cantus firmus: chant or popular song
  5. Josquin des Prez and the Motet
    1. Josquin des Prez (c. 1450–1521)
      1. northern French composer
      2. Italian court positions; papal choir in Rome
      3. humanism: expressive harmony, serene melodies
      4. sacred and secular compositions
    2. Listening Guide 9: Josquin, Ave Maria . . . virgo serena (Hail Mary . . . gentle virgin) (1480s)
      1. Latin motet
      2. four-voice, a cappella choir
      3. varied combinations of voices and textures
  6. The Reformation and Counter-Reformation
    1. Reformation: Protestant Revolt
      1. Martin Luther (1483–1546): Ninety-Five Theses, 1517
        1. Augustinian monk
        2. excommunicated by Catholic church
      2. mass in vernacular
      3. hymns sung communally
    2. Counter-Reformation: Catholic church response
      1. recapture loyalty of people: accessible music
      2. Council of Trent (1545–1563) concerns
        1. embellishments to Gregorian chant
        2. objected to certain instruments in church
        3. use of popular songs in Masses
        4. secular spirit in sacred music
        5. irreverent attitude of church musicians
        6. complex polyphony obscured the text
      3. Council favored pure vocal style
        1. simplicity, clarity
        2. respected integrity of sacred texts
        3. encourage piety
  7. Palestrina and the Pope Marcellus Mass
    1. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c. 1525–1594)
      1. Italian composer, organist, choirmaster
      2. worked at St. Peter’s in Rome and Sistine Chapel Choir
      3. mostly sacred compositions; over 100 Masses
      4. pure, a cappella, vocal polyphony
    2. Listening Guide 10: Palestrina, Pope Marcellus Mass, Gloria (1567)
      1. six-part, a cappella male choir
      2. monophonic opening
      3. homorhythmic and polyphonic textures follow
      4. clear declamation of the text
      5. full, consonant harmony