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Prelude Listening to Music Today
1 Melody: Musical Line
2 Rhythm and Meter: Musical Time
3 Harmony: Musical Space
4 The Organization of Musical Sounds
5 Musical Texture
6 Musical Form
7 Musical Expression: Tempo and Dynamics
8 Voices and Musical Instrument Families
9 Western Musical Instruments
10 Musical Ensembles
11 Style and Function of Music in Society
12 The Culture of the Middle Ages
13 Medieval Music
14 The Renaissance Spirit
15 Renaissance Sacred Music
16 Renaissance Secular Music
17 The Baroque Spirit
18 Vocal Music of the Baroque
19 Orchestral Music of the Baroque
20 Baroque Keyboard Music
21 The Classical Spirit
22 The Development of Classical Forms
23 The Classical Symphony
24 The Classical Concerto and Sonata
25 Classical Opera
26 The Spirit of Romanticism
27 The Romantic Miniature
28 Romantic Program Music
29 Romantic Opera
30 The Late Romantics
31 America's Emerging Musical Voice
32 The Impressionist Era
33 Main Currents in Early-Twentieth-Century Music
34 Early-Twentieth-Century Innovators
35 Nationalism and Music
36 Ragtime, Blues, and Jazz
37 New Directions
38 Contemporary Composers Look to World Music
39 Music for the Stage and Screen
40 The Many Voices of Rock
41 Some Current Trends

The Enjoyment of Music: Essential Listening Edition

Materials of Music

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Melody : Rhythm : Harmony : Texture : Form : Dynamics : Timbre

Harmony: The vertical relationship of combined notes

Harmony The simultaneous combination of notes and the ensuing relationships of intervals and chords; the vertical relationship of combined notes. Not all musics of the world rely on harmony for interest, but it is central to most Western music.
In this example, the piano melody is supported by a simple harmonic accompaniment.
Example: Mozart, Piano Concerto in C major, K. 467, second movement
Chord Simultaneous combination of tones (typically three or more) that constitute a single block of harmony.
In this example, the melody is accompanied by repeated chords, or blocks of harmony (each made up of three tones).
Example: Chopin, Prelude in E minor, Op. 28, No. 4
Interval The distance and relationship between two pitches.
In the example, the accompaniment sustains the harmonic interval of a fifth, while the melody alternates descending fifths and fourths.
Example: Beethoven, Symphony No. 9 in D minor, first movement
Triad A common chord type consisting of three pitches built on alternate tones of a major scale or minor scale (1—3—5)
In this example, the opening melody outlines the notes of a major triad (1 - 3 - 5), sounding them one after another rather than simultaneously.
Example: Haydn, Symphony No. 94 (Surprise), second movement
Scale A series of tones or pitches in ascending or descending order. Scale tones are often assigned numbers (1–8) or syllables (do—re—mi—fa—sol—la—ti—do).
Major Scale A collection of seven different pitches ordered in the specific pattern of whole steps and half steps shown below:
Major Scale
The melody in this example is chosen from the pitches of a major scale built on the pitch G.
Example: Bach, Minuet in G
Minor Scale A collection of seven different pitches ordered in the specific pattern of whole steps and half steps shown below (diagram)
Major Scale
This mournful melody is built from the pitches of a minor scale.
Example: Grieg, Peer Gynt Suite, "Ase's Death"
Tonic
In tonality, the first note of a scale (the tonic, or keynote "do") serves as the home base around which the others revolve.
This melody begins and ends on the first note of the scale, the tonic, and revolves around this pitch, providing a strong sense of a home base (tonality).
Example: Beethoven, Symphony No. 9, fourth movement, "Ode to Joy"
Tonality
The principal of organizing a work around a central tonic, or home pitch, based on a major or minor scale.
Tonality is perceived here as a strong pull to the tonic (G); when the melody finally reaches a cadence on this pitch (at the end of this excerpt), there is a sense of finality.
Example: Bach, Minuet in G
Diatonic Melody or harmony built solely from the seven tones of a major or minor scale.
This trumpet melody is built exclusively from the seven pitches of a major scale, making it diatonic.
Example: Mouret, Rondeau
Chromatic Melody or harmony built from many, if not all, of the twelve semitones (half steps) of the octave.
This winding melody makes use of many half steps from the chromatic scale.
Example: Bach, Chromatic Fantasy and Fugue in D minor, Fugue
Consonance
A concordant, harmonious combination of tones that provides a sense of relaxation and stability in music.
This majestic passage is harmonious, or consonant, providing a sense of stability in the music.
Example: Brahms, Symphony No. 1, fourth movement
Dissonance A combination of tones that sounds discordant and unstable, in need of resolution.
Drone Sustained sounding of one or several tones for harmonic support, a common feature in folk music.
A low-pitched, two-note drone is heard at the beginning of this example, as the disjunct melodic idea is passed from one instrument to another.
Example: Beethoven, Symphony No. 9 in D minor, first movement

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