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  • 1. Liturgical Music
    • Liturgy: set order of services and structure of each service in the church
    • Characteristics of Gregorian chant (plainchant, plainsong)
      • Monophonic texture
      • Nonmetric
      • Latin text
    • More than 3,000 melodies survive
    • Chant is classified by the way the notes are set to the text
      • Syllabic: one note per syllable of text
      • Neumatic: small group of notes sung to a syllable of text
      • Melismatic: many notes per syllable of text
    • Early chants were handed down orally
    • Early chant notation used neumes
      • Neumes suggested contours of the melody but not rhythm
    • Scale patterns used are the church modes
  • 2. The Mass
    • One of two categories of services in the Roman Catholic Church, the other being the Offices
    • The prayers that make up the Mass fall into two categories:
      • Proper: texts change according to the day
      • Ordinary: texts are the same for every Mass
  • 3. Gregorian Chant: Kyrie (Listening Guide 2)
    • The first item of the Ordinary
      • Text is a Greek prayer for mercy
    • Ternary form
      • A Kyrie eleison (Lord have mercy) (three times)
      • B Christe eleison (Christ have mercy) (three times)
      • C Kyrie eleison (three times)
    • Triple repetition represents the Holy Trinity
    • Responsorial form (soloist alternates with chorus)
    • Only section of Mass in Greek (rest in Latin)
  • 4. Life in the Medieval Cloister
    • Cloister: a place for religious seclusion
      • Monastery: men
      • Convent: women
    • Cloisters were places of prayer, scholarship, preaching, charity, healing
  • 5. The Music of Hildegard of Bingen
    • Hildegard of Bingen (10981179)
    • 1150 founded convent in Rupertsberg, Germany
    • Known for miracles and prophecies
    • Recorded 3 collections of visions and prophecies in manuscript
    • Composed religious poetry with music
    • Characteristics of Hildegard's poetry
      • Brilliant imagery
      • Visionary language
      • Collected in volume: Symphony of the Harmony of Celestial Revelations, for liturgical church year
    • Morality play: drama meant to teach virtues
      • Hildegard's best-known morality play:
      • The Play of the Virtues (Ordo virtutum)
  • 6. Hildegard of Bingen: Alleluia, O virga mediatrix (Listening Guide 3)
    • From the Mass Proper
      • Proper to feasts of the Virgin Mary
    • Ternary form (A-B-A)
    • Responsorial form (soloist alternates with chorus)
    • Monophonic texture
    • Conjunct melody with few leaps
    • Free, nonmetric rhythm
    • Neumatic text setting
  • 7. The Rise of Polyphony
    • Early Polyphony emerged at the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris
    • Polyphony evolved toward the end of the Romanesque period (c. 8501150)
    • Organum: earliest polyphonic music
      • Second melody added above or below the older Gregorian melody
        • Léonin: earliest known composer of the Notre Dame School
        • Pérotin: Léonin's successor, added two and three melodies to chant
      • Polyphony necessitated the use of notated rhythm and pitch
        • Rhythm was chosen from a group of patterns called rhythmic modes
  • 8. Notre Dame School Organum: Gaude Maria virgo (Listening Guide 4)
    • Text praises Blessed Virgin
    • Three-voice organum in the style of Pérotin
      • All voices sing same text
      • Melody in two upper voices is melismatic
      • Original melody is older chant, slowed down
  • 9. The Early Medieval Motet
    • A new genre emerged near the end of the thirteenth century
    • Composers wrote texts to second melody in organum
    • New genre called motet (mot is French for "word")
      • Many three-voice motets have different texts (polytextual)
      • Sometimes the languages were mixed in one piece
        • French and Latin
      • Motets can be sacred or secular
      • Can have instrumental accompaniment
      • A Gregorian chant is the basis for a motet
      • The other voices are composed around the chant
  • 10. The Thirteenth-Century Motet
    • Composers built the motet from the bottom voice (tenor) up
      • Tenor (from the Latin tenere meaning "to hold"
      • The tenor is a pre-existing tune
  • 11. Anonymous: Mout me fu grief/Robin m'aime/Portare (Listening Guide 5)
    • Three-voice polytextual motet
      • Each voice sings a different text
      • Top two voices in French, tenor in Latin
    • Portare ("to carry") tenor text is an older chant melody
      • Text refers to the Crucifixion and the life of the Virgin Mary
    • Robin m'aime middle voice text is an older secular tune
      • Text refers to Robin and Marion
    • Mout me fu grief is a courtly poem describing a women associated with the Virgin Mary
    • Piece combines old and new text and music, as well as pastoral, courtly and spiritual traditions

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