Chapter Study Outline

       I. China and Rome: How empires are built

             A. Unprecedented power: Roman and Han characteristics

                       1. Size, quality, and lasting worldwide impact

                       2. Cultural, economic, and administrative control

             B. Empire and cultural identity

                    1. Han

                                    a. Civilian magistrates and bureaucrats were public servants

                                    b. Emulated past models for empire's ideals

                                    c. Elites shared common language

                                    d. Belief in ancestor worship

                    2. Rome

                                    a. Definition of citizenship changed over time

                                    b. Pragmatic innovation and adaptation as empire's ideals

                                    c. Common language was Latin

             C. Patterns of imperial expansion

                             1. Both consolidated their power within their environmental limits using a common legal framework

                             2. They had different patterns of development, types of public servants, and government practices

            3. Han looked to past for methods; Romans used pragmatism to define methods

                             4. Both became models for later imperialists

       II. The Qin dynasty

             A. Administration and control

                       1. Political organization and control

                             a. Commanderies with civilian and military governors

                             b. Registration of males for army and public labor

                             c. Control by censorship

                             d. Standardized weights, measures, currency

                       2. Legalism

                             a. Stability through strict law and punishment

                             b. Group responsibility for individuals

                       3. Qin orthodoxy

                       4. Road systems

                       5. Standardized writing style

             B. Economic and social changes

                       1. Expansion of agriculture

                             a. Role of government

                             b. Role of peasant farmers

                       2. Economic changes

                             a. Farms replace royal manors

                             b. Profit from surpluses

                             c. Business and labor contracts

                             d. Long-distance trade

                             e. Merchant class and trade networks

                              f. Government trade tariffs

             C. The Xiongnu and the Qin along the northern frontier

                       1. Beginnings of the Great Wall

                             a. Qin relationship with Xiongnu nomadic warriors: delicate balance

            D. The Qin debacle

                       1. Qin collapse

                             a. Constant warfare led to heavy taxes

                             b. Former nobles and conscripted workers mutiny

                             c. Civil war

                             d. Rise of the Han

       III. The Han dynasty

             A. Foundations of Han power

                       1. Alliance between imperial family and scholar-gentry elite

                       2. Economic, social, military, bureaucratic supports

                       3. Humanization of legal punishments

                       4. Power and administration

                             a. Power given to royal relatives and supporters

                             b. Organization of ruling hierarchy

                             c. Highly centralized bureaucracy

                             d. Han administration replaces regional princes

                             e. Government schools produce scholar-officials, bureaucrats

                       5. Confucian ideology and legitimate rule

                             a. Importance of people’s welfare

                             b. Civilize locals and support elites

                             c. Confucian ideals became imperial doctrine

                                         i. No more rule by fear

                       6. The new social order and the economy

                             a. Alliances with diverse social groups

                             b. Encouragement of class mobility

                             c. Economic expansion

                                         i. Agrarian base

                                        ii. State-owned industries

                                       iii. State monopolies

                                      iv. Improved economic policies

                             d. Organization of Han cities and society

                                         i. The rich

                                        ii. Women

                                       iii. Lower classes

                                      iv. Scholar-gentry

                             e. Failure of Han to limit power of local lords

                                         i. Size of empire

                                        ii. Local uprisings

                       7. Religion and omens

                             a. Confucianism influences religion

                             b. Astronomical and natural forces seen as omens against emperor

             B. Expansion of the empire and the Silk Road

                       1. Han military expanded empire and created safe trading routes

                       2. Expanding borders

                             a. Han control from southeastern China to northern Vietnam

                       3. The Xiongnu, the Yuezhi, and the Han dynasty

                             a. Symbiotic relationship with nomads to the north

                             b. Han attempt to ally with Yuezhi against Xiongnu fails

                                         i. Expedition leads to information about frontier peoples

                             c. Roman frontier threats

                                         i. Contact between Roman and Han via Silk Road

                       4. The Chinese peace: Trade, oases, and the Silk Road

                             a. Peaceful era after Xiongnu submit to Han army

                                         i. Pax SinicaPax Romana

                                        ii. Expansion of Great Wall

                                       iii. Soldiers settle frontier

                                      iv. Oasis system enhances trade routes

             C. Social convulsions and the usurper

                       1. Military expansion drains treasury and raises taxes

                             a. Dispossessed peasant farmers become rebels

                       2. Usurper Wang Mang takes control and attempts social reforms

            D. Natural disaster and rebellion

                       1. Yellow River changes course

                             a. Demographic changes

                             b. Regular peasant revolts

                             c. Reasons for overthrow of Wang Mang

             E. The later Han dynasty

                       1. Deregulated economic policies to benefit landowners, business, trade

                       2. Increased social inequality leads to rebellion

                             a. Yellow Emperor replaces Confucius

                             b. Daoist Master Laozi treated as god

                             c. Rise of Buddhism

                             d. Daoists challenge later Han

                       3. Three states replace Han

                             a. Northwest: Wei

                             b. Southwest: Shu

                             c. South: Wu

                       4. No reunification until Tang dynasty

       IV. The Roman Empire

             A. Comparison of Han and Roman Empires

                       1. Comparable size and scale

                             a. Rome ruled lands along seacoasts

                             b. Han ruled vast landmass

                       2. Both used violent conquest to unite empire

             B. Foundations of the Roman Empire

                       1. Reasons for the increasing power of Rome as city-state

                             a. Migration of foreign peoples

                             b. Roman military and political innovations

                       2. Population movements

                             a. Movement of Gauls into northern Italy

                             b. Etruscans lose power in Italy

                       3. Military institutions and conquests

                             a. Conquered communities provided men for army

                             b. The Punic Wars, Carthaginians, Hannibal

                             c. Male military honor and training

                             d. Military prowess matched only by China

                       4. Political institutions and internal conflict

                             a. Reasons for internal tension

                                         i. Inadequate government organization

                                        ii. Powerful elite dispossesses farmers

                                       iii. Increasing power of military commanders

                             b. Civil wars begin

             C. Emperors, authoritarian rule, and administration

                       1. Peace through authoritarian rule

                             a. Emperors portrayed themselves as civil rulers

                             b. Abuses of power

                             c. Military as government

            D. Town and city life

                       1. Local administration through urban centers

                       2. Rome comparable only with Han capitals

                       3. Characteristics of life in Rome

                             a. Emperor ensured citizens’ welfare

                             b. Unsanitary

                       4. Uniform rules and regulations across empire

             E. Mass entertainment

                       1. Theaters and amphitheaters

                             a. The Colosseum

                             b. Open to all Roman citizens

                             c. Similar entertainment available to Han elite in China

             F. Social and gender relations

                       1. Wealthy patronage of lower class

                       2. Judicial system

                             a. Unifying characteristic of empire

                       3. Importance of family

                             a. Paterfamilias

                             b. Census

                       4. Personal freedom of women

                       5. Unifying characteristic of writing Latin

            G. Economy and new scales of production

                       1. Large-scale agricultural, manufacturing, and mining production

                       2. Road networks link empire

                             a. Creation of land maps

                             b. Connection with sea routes and trade

                             c. Efficient use of coinage

                       3. Use of chattel slaves for mining and plantation agriculture

                             a. Latifundia

                       4. Importance of private property ownership

            H. Religious cults and the rise of Christianity

                             1. Conflict between Christianity and Roman authority

                                        a. Jesus and followers

                                        b. Crucifixion by Romans

                             b. Persecution of Christians

            I. The limits of empire

                       1. Ecological limits to west and south

                       2. Short-term limits of Parthians and Sasanians of Central Asia

                       3. Harsh winters to north along Danube and Rhine

                             a. Slave trade

       V. Conclusion

             A. Comparison of Han and Roman empires

                       1. Use of slaves for expansion

                       2. Economic role of peasant farmers

                       3. Extent of unification within empire

                       4. Evolution of two empires

                       5. Unprecedented power of both