Chapter Study Outline

       I. Out of Africa: Theory and debate

             A. Common African heritage

             B. Modern human exodus only 100,000 years ago

             C. Differences are mostly cultural

       II. Precursors to modern humans

             A. Creation myths and beliefs

                       1. Yoruba peoples’ creation story

                       2. Brahmanical Vedas and the Upanishads' creation story

                       3. Chinese Han dynasty creation story

                       4. Buddhists' creation story

             B. Evolutionary findings and research methods

                       1. Universe 15 billion years old

                       2. Earth 4.5 billion years old

                       3. African apes 23 million years ago

                             a. Gorillas

                             b. Chimpanzees

                             c. Hominids

                       4. Hominid traits began to set them apart

                             a. Bipedalism

                             b. Ability to carry objects and use weapons

                             c. Ability to control and make fire

                             d. Design and use of tools

                             e. Development of larger brain

                              f. Language

                             g. Self-awareness

                       5. Hominid traits fully in place 50,000 years ago

                       6. 12,000 BCE marked big advance to sedentary villages

             C. Early hominids and adaptation

                       1. Discovery of Australopithecus africanus in South Africa

                             a. Six distinct species

                             b. Not humans

                             c. Key trait adaptability

                       2. “Lucy” discovered in northern Africa

                       3. Adaptation

                             a.   Many early hominids died out

                             b. No direct genetic line to modern men and women

                             c. Bipedalism as great advantage

                               i. Carrying food and weapons

                             ii. Migration out of hostile areas

                       4. Environmental change: walking on two legs

                             a. Reasons for walking on two legs

                             b. Advantages of bipedalism

                               i. Increased options for subsistence

                             ii. Increased cognitive skills

                            iii. Allowed tool making

                             c.   Increased cognition and skill made hominids excel over other primates

                             d. Opposable thumbs for increased physical dexterity

                             e. Lived in highly social groups

                             ii. Hunted and gathered food

                            iii. Developed early communication

                             f.   Adapted physically and cognitively over time to changing environment

                                         i. Brains larger

                                        ii. Foreheads more elongated

                                       iii. Less massive jaw

                                      iv. Looked more modern

                                        v. Ability to store and analyze information

                                      vi. Form mental maps

                                     vii. Learn, remember, and convey information

                             g. Natural selection an advantage to those hominids with larger brains

                             5. Diversity

            D. The first humans: Homo habilis

                             1. First appearance of Homo (true human)

                                        a. Large brains

                                        b. Systematic and large-scale tool use

                       2. Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

                             a. Louis and Mary Leakey

                             b. Intact skull of “Dear Boy”

                             c. Fashioning cutting and scooping tools

                             d. Passing on knowledge to offspring

                             e. Homo habilis (“skillful man”)

             E. Early humans on the move: Migrations of Homo erectus

                       1. Only hominid survivor was Homo erectus (“standing man”)

                       2. Traits that contributed to survival

                             a. Extended periods of caring for young

                                         i. Gave infant brain time to grow

                                        ii. Time for training by adults

                                       iii. “Allomothering” (other mothering)

                       3. Traits that distinguished from competitors

                             a. Bipedalism

                                    i. Smooth gait allowed long-distance travel

                             b. Attempts to control environment

                                         i. Tools

                                         ii. Fire

                                              a. Heat, protection, and gathering point

                                              b. Cooking allowed expanding diets

                                              c. Powerful symbol of human control of energy

                       4. Hominids migrated out of Africa 1.5 million years ago

                             a. Southwest Asia

                             b. Indian Ocean shoreline

                             c. Indian subcontinent

                             d. Southeast Asia

                             e. China

                       5. Migration caused by huge environmental changes

                             a. Ice ages in Northern Hemisphere

                             b. Land bridges formed between landmasses

                       6. Widespread migration of Homo erectus

                             a. Java Man discovery (1891)

                             b. Peking Man discovery (early twentieth century)

                       7. Human evolution featured both progression and retrogression

                             a. Climate change altered speciation (species formation)

                             b. Several species could exist at same time

                             c. Homo erectus not direct ancestors of Homo sapiens

       III. The first modern humans

             A. Homo Sapiens: “Human” species moved out of Africa between 120,000 and 50,000 years ago

                       1. Took millions of years to evolve

                       2. Complex linguistic expression (language) last to develop

                       3. Homo sapien "sapiens": wise or intelligent humans

             B. Homo sapiens and their migration

                       1. Climate change led to smaller mammals’ survival

                             a. Agility and speed

                             b. Homo sapiens better adapted to change than Homo erectus

                       2. Followed earlier migration patterns out of Africa

                             a. Thrived in many areas

                             b. Developed distinct regional cultures

                       3. China’s Shandingdong Man from 18,000 years ago

                             a. Looked more like modern humans

                             b. Similar brain size to modern humans

                             c. Tools included bone needle

                             d. Buried their dead

                       4. Homo sapiens in eastern Asia

                             a. Followed herds of large mammals such as mastodons

                             b. Crossed ice bridge to Japan

                       5. 16,000 BCE: crossed land bridge Beringia to North America

                             a. Broken Mammoth site in Alaska

                       6. 8,000 BCE: migrations by boat to North America

                             a. Land bridge melted

                             b. Americas cut off from rest of world

             C. Cro-Magnon Homo sapiens replaced Neanderthals

                       1. Neanderthals, early wave of hominids, settled in Afro-Eurasia

                       2. Not genetically related to modern Homo sapiens

                       3. Skull found in Neander Valley (1856)

                       4. Brain larger than modern human brain but not as complex

                       5. Cro-Magnon better adapted than Neanderthals to environmental changes

                             a. Neanderthals’ speech limited

                             b. Physical characteristics made Neanderthals less agile

                             c. Cro-Magnon able to adapt

                       6. With environmental changes Neanderthals vanished

            D. Early Homo sapiens as hunters and gatherers

                       1. Hunting and gathering until 12,000 BCE

                       2. San hunters of South Africa present-day hunters and gatherers

                       3. Hunting and gathering culture

                             a. Enough food found in three hours

                             b. Time for relaxation

                             c. Highly egalitarian between sexes

                             d. Women may have enjoyed higher status

       IV. The arts and language

             A. Art

                       1. Homo sapiens drawings

                             a. Helped them understand environment

                             b. Bonded tightly among their kin groups

                             c. Established important mythology

                             d. Vivid and realistic in depicting large game animals

                             e. Few depictions of humans

                              f. Handprints and abstract symbols

                       2. Meaning of drawings

                             a. Decoration theory discounted

                             b. Separated themselves from nature

                             c. Work of shamans for ritual use

                       3. Sculptures

                             a. Shaped from bone and stone tools

                             b. Most often renderings of animals and female figurines

                       4. Animal paintings symbolic of male or female

                       5. Music

                             a. Flute dated approximately 35,000 years ago

                             b. Made harmonic sounds

                       6. Art provided permanent symbolic expression

             B. Language

                       1. Evolutionary milestone

                             a. Enhanced ability to communicate

                             b. Allowed for bodies of knowledge to be transmitted

                       2. Phonemes

                             a. Humans can create sequences of words

                             b. Complex language occurred 50,000 years ago

                             c. !Kung of Southern Africa and Hadza of Tanzania offer contemporary examples of protolanguage

       V. The beginnings of food production

             A. Humans began to cultivate wild grasses and cereals and domesticate animals

                       1. Southwest Asia

                       2. China

                       3. Southeast Asia

                       4. Mesoamerica

                       5. Northeastern America

                       6. Other possible sites: East Africa, inland West Africa, southeastern Europe, South America

             B. Early domestication of plants and animals

                       1. Gradual change from hunting and gathering to agriculture

                             a. Climatic changes led to settled life

                             b. Valleys and mountains of Southwest Asia first permanent settlements

                       2. Plant domestication

                             a. Experiments began with domesticating plants

                             b. Larger communities supported with more food

                       3. Animal domestication

                             a. Dogs domesticated first

                             b. Wild sheep in Zagros Mountains second to be domesticated

                             c. Community members moved herds from settlement to grassy steppes to graze as food supplies were stripped

                             d. Movement becomes known as pastoralism, an alternative to settled farming

                             e. Pigs and cattle also domesticated

                       4. Pastoralists and agriculturalists

                             a. Replaced hunter gathering and foraging

                             b. New ways to use land and modes of human organization

                             c. Transhumance

                                         i. Domesticated horses

                                        ii. Developed weapons and techniques

                                       iii. Transmitted ideas, products, and people across long distances

                                      iv. Connected east and west

                                        v. Horses most important animal and became measure of household wealth and prestige

                             d. Nomadic pastoralism evolved on steppes

                             e. Domestication of plants and animals led to a global agricultural revolution

             C. Pastoralists and agriculturalists

       VI. Emergence of agriculture in other areas

             A. Agricultural revolutions occurred all over the world 

                       1. Regional variations because of climate, geography, and preexisting social organizations

             B. Southwest Asia: The agricultural revolution begins

                       1. Agricultural revolution occurred in Southwest Asia

                       2. Fertile Crescent—place of rich soils and regular rainfall

                       3. Four large mammals domesticated (goats, sheep, pigs, cattle)

                       4. Horses came to the area from steppes

                       5. Climate change led to more plants in the area

                       6. 9000 BCE: Jordan River valley people began to domesticate barley and wheat

                             a. Selected and stored seeds for later planting

                       7. Land between Tigris and Euphrates rivers remained settled by small communities

                             a. Before 5500 BCE, flood and drought prevented agricultural advances in the area

                             b. Competition from other areas eventually led to early attempts to control river

             C. East Asia: Rice and water

                       1. Melting glaciers in 13,000 BCE led to environmental changes

                       2. Japanese islands formed

                             a. Large animals became extinct

                             b. Began to cultivate crops

                       3. River basins and lakes formed in Asia

                       4. Yellow and Yangzi River valleys became heavily populated

                       5. Rice domesticated by 6500 BCE; millet by 5500 BCE

                       6. Grain, tools, and technical knowledge spread throughout East Asia

                       7. Pottery making for storage, polished stone axes for clearing fields and plowing

                       8. Regional agriculture differences affected cultures and aesthetics of the people in those regions

            D. Europe: Borrowing along two pathways

                       1. Domestication ideas came from other areas and spread quickly

                       2. Greece and the Balkans first converted from hunters and gatherers

                       3. Agriculture and village life in Europe developed in two areas

                             a. Northern rim of the Mediterranean Sea

                             b. Greece, the Balkans, and along Danube and Rhine River valleys

                       4. Ideas spread by water and overland

                       5. Needed to find crops and animals that could adapt to new climates

                             a. Main crops: wheat and barley

                             b. Main herded animals: sheep, goats, and cattle

                             c. Later plants included olives and grape-producing vines

                       6. Material progress changed little

                             a. Settlements of twelve to seventy huts

                             b. Timber and mud “long houses”

                             c. Hunting and gathering supplemented agriculture

                             d. Blend of old and new ways

                             e. Geography determined where changes occurred

                              f. Population rose in settled communities

             E. The Americas: A slower transition to agriculture

                       1. Flora and fauna different in the Americas than in Afro-Eurasia

                       2. Used chipped blades and pointed spears in hunting

                       3. Clovis people scattered throughout North America

                       4. Climatic change and adaptation

                             a. Large prey became increasingly vulnerable because of environmental changes that affected the food supply

                             b. Ecological niches generated a variety of subsistence strategies

                             c. Most communities blended settled agriculture with hunting and gathering

                       5. Changes to food production happened more slowly

                             a. Stone tools in Tehuacán Valley by 6700 BCE

                             b. Plant domestication by 5000 BCE

                             c. Fishing and shellfishing along various coasts

                                         i. Peru example: fishing but no watercrafts

                       6. Domestication of plants and animals

                             a. Plant experimentation dates from 7000 BCE

                                    i. Maize, squash, and beans

                                    ii. Maize not fully domesticated until 2000 BCE

                             b. Balanced diet through crops such as legumes, grains, and tubers

                             c.   Few domesticated animals for alternative protein source

                                    i. Exception in Andean highlands, where guinea pigs were raised for food

                                    ii. Llamas semidomesticated for clothing and hauling

                       d. Change slower in Americas because of diversity and isolation

             F. Africa: The race with the Sahara

                       1. Sahel area became settled by farmers and herders

                             a. Later Africans from this area carried techniques to other areas of the continent

                       2. Sahel region

                             a. Lush with grassland vegetation and many animals

                             b. Sorghum principal food crop

                       3. In temperate and wetter climates villages formed

                             a. Houses made from stone

                             b. Underground wells and granary storage areas

                             c. Created rock engravings and paintings

                                         i. Hunting and pastoral scenes

                                        ii. Cattle

                                       iii. Daily activities of men and women

                       4. Warming and drying of the earth’s climate pushed inhabitants toward inland water

                       5. Climate change pushed people out to other parts of Africa

                             a. Tropical rain forests of West Africa

                                         i. Root crops such as yams and cocoyams

                             b. Ethiopian highlands

                                         i. Enset (bananalike) plant   

       VII. Revolutions in social organization

             A. Village growth led to specialization and stratification

             B. Settlement in villages

                       1. Dwellings changed from circular to rectangular

                       2. Population growth led to increased use of resources

                       3. Specialized tasks evolved

                             a. Procuring and preparing food

                             b. Building terraces

                             c. Defending the settlement

                       4. Rectangular building shape evolved

                             a. Easier to build walls for separation

                       5. Early settlements that made transition to settled agriculture

                             a. Wadi en-Natuf, near Jerusalem (12,500 BCE)

                             b. Eastern Anatolia

                             c. Çatal Hüyük in central Anatolia

                                         i. Decorated human-made dwellings with art and imagery

                       6. Mesopotamian inhabitants created simple irrigation systems

                             a. Community became stratified

                             b. Burial sites reflected power status

                             c. High status from birth, not through merit or work

                       7. Population increase led to larger concentrations of people into early towns         

                       8. Dominant male households replaced small egalitarian bands as social units

             C. Men, women, and evolving gender relations

                       1. Biological-based differences between men and women

                             a. Women give birth to offspring, men do not

                             b. Biology determined female and male actions toward each other

                       2. Gender (social and culture differences) appear only with Homo sapiens

                       3. Need language and complex thinking to develop true gender categories of man and woman

                       4. Gender roles more pronounced with food-producing revolution

                             a. Gender equality eroded as communities abandoned hunting and gathering

                             b. Women’s knowledge of plants contributed to the move to settled agriculture, but women did not benefit from that move

                             c. “Great Leap Sideways”

                       5. Larger tools further separated genders

                             a. Men took over yoking animals

                             b. Women left with repetitive tasks of planting, weeding and harvesting, and grinding

                             c. Agricultural innovations increased drudgery, which mainly fell to women

                             d. Fossil record clearly shows gendered farm work

                                         i. Women’s fossil record shows more physical problems with settled agriculture

                       6. Stratification of genders affected power relations within households and community

                             a. Senior male figure became dominant in households, politics, and cultural hierarchies

                             b. Division among men but especially between men and women

                             c. Patriarchy, or the “rule of senior males,” within households spread globally

       VIII. Conclusion

             A. African hominids evolved from other primates into Homo erectus hominids

             B. Climate change and adaptation led to the spread of successive generations of hominids out of Africa

             C. Homo sapiens with larger brains moved out of Africa about 100,000 years ago

                       1. Language and complex thinking helped them adapt during further climate change

             D. As they adapted over time they formed communities of hunters and gatherers

             E. Changes in climate in some places in the world led to embrace of settled agriculture

             F. Settled farm communities varied in what they grew and which animals were domesticated

             G. Some peoples continued to hunt and gather or move with migrating fish or mammals

             H. Most people remained exclusively rural, developed largely horizontal social structures, and depended on the natural world