Chapter Study Outline

  1. Introduction
    1. Britain, France, Egypt, and the Suez Canal
    2. Technology, money, and politics
    3. Western superiority
  2. Imperialism
    1. Definitions
      1. The process of extending one state's control over another
      2. Formal imperialism
        1. Colonialism or direct control
        2. Colonizing countries annexed territories outright
        3. Established new governments
      3. Informal imperialism
        1. Conquering nations reached agreements with indigenous leaders and governed through them
        2. Allowed weaker state to maintain its independence while reducing its sovereignty
        3. Carving out zones of European sovereignty and privilege
    2. Imperialist endeavors
      1. 1875-1902: Europeans took up 90 percent of Africa
      2. 1870-1900: small group of European states colonized one-quarter of the world's lands
    3. Eighteenth-century losses
      1. The British in the North American colonies
      2. French Atlantic trade
      3. Spanish and Portuguese in South America
    4. Nineteenth-century imperialism
      1. Appeared against the backdrop of industrialization, liberal revolutions, and the rise of nation-states
      2. The need for raw materials
      3. Bringing progress to the world
      4. Imperialists sought to distance themselves from earlier histories of conquest
      5. Colonial resistance and rebellion forced Europeans to develop new strategies of rule
        1. The British granted self-government to Canada, Australia, and New Zealand
      6. Nineteenth-century empires established carefully codified racial hierarchies
      7. Guided more by "settlement and discipline" than independent entrepreneurial activity
      8. The creation of new kinds of interaction between Europeans and indigenous peoples
    5. The new imperialism and its causes
      1. Economic arguments
        1. A. Hobson (1858-1940), Imperialism (1902)
          1. Imperialism was driven by a small group of financiers
          2. International capitalists
          3. Investors sought out secure investment opportunities in colonies
          4. The manufacturing, military, and armaments interest
        2. Lenin (1870-1924), Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism (1917)
          1. Imperialism as an essential stage in the development of capitalism
          2. The internal contradictions of capitalism produced imperialism
          3. The overthrow of capitalism would check imperialism
        3. London as the banker of the world
        4. Demand for raw materials made colonization a necessary investment
      2. Strategic and nationalist motives
        1. International rivalries fueled the belief that national interests were at stake
        2. The French supported imperialism as a means of restoring national honor
        3. The British worried about German and French industrialization and losing world markets
        4. The link between imperialism and nation building
      3. The cultural dimension
        1. David Livingston (1813-1873) and putting an end to the African slave trade
        2. Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) and the "white man's burden"
        3. Civilizing the barbaric and heathens
      4. Imperial policy
        1. Less a matter of long-range planning
        2. More a matter of quick responses to improvised situations
  3. Imperialism in South Asia
    1. India and the British empire
      1. The "jewel of the British Crown"
      2. The British East India Company
        1. Had its own military divided into European and Indian divisions
        2. Held the right to collect taxes on land from Indian peasants
        3. Held legal monopolies over trade in all goods (the most lucrative was opium)
        4. Constituted a military and repressive government
        5. Offered economic privileges to those who allied themselves with the British against others
      3. British policy divided
        1. One group wanted to Westernize India
        2. Another thought it safer and more practical to defer to local culture
    2. The Sepoy Rebellion (1857-1858)
      1. Uprising began near Delhi
      2. Social, economic, and political grievances
      3. Indian peasants attacked law courts and burned tax rolls
      4. A protest against debt and corruption
      5. Hindu and Muslim leaders denounced Christian missionaries
      6. The British response
        1. Systematic campaign of repression
        2. Rebel-supported towns and villages were destroyed
        3. Defeat of the rebellion fired the imagination of the British public
    3. After the mutiny: reorganizing the Indian empire
      1. New strategies of British rule
      2. East India Company was abolished
      3. British raj governed directly
      4. Military reorganization
      5. Queen Victoria as empress of India
      6. Reform of the civil service
      7. Missionary activity subdued
    4. India and Britain
      1. India as Britain's largest export market
      2. India provided Britain with highly trained engineers and bureaucrats
      3. 1.2 million Indian troops fought with the British in World War I
      4. British indirect rule sought to create an Indian elite to serve British interests
      5. Large social group of British-educated Indian civil servants and businessmen
        1. Provided the leadership for an Indian nationalist movement
  4. Imperialism in China
    1. Europe and China
      1. Forced trade agreements
      2. Set up treaty ports
      3. Established outposts of missionary activity
      4. British aimed to improve terms of the China trade
    2. The opium trade
      1. A direct link between Britain, British India, and China
      2. Opium one of the few products Europeans could sell in China
      3. Northeast India as richest opium-growing area
      4. A "narco-military empire"
      5. Opium production was labor-intensive
      6. A triangular trade
        1. East India Company sold opium to British, Dutch, and Chinese shippers
        2. Opium sent to Southeast Asia and China
        3. Silver paid for opium was used to buy Chinese goods for the European market
      7. China banned opium imports (1830s)
      8. A collision course with British opium traders
    3. The Opium Wars (1839-1842)
      1. The first Opium War
        1. Drugs not the main focus
        2. The issue was sovereignty and economic status
        3. European rights to trade
      2. Treaty of Nanking (1843)
        1. British trading privileges
        2. Hong Kong
      3. The second Opium War
        1. Britain granted further rights
      4. Other countries demand similar rights and economic opportunities
        1. French, German, and Russian mining rights
        2. Begin manufacturing with Chinese labor
      5. The United States and the "open door"
      6. Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895)
        1. Forced China to concede trading privileges
        2. The independence of Korea
      7. The Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864)
        1. Radical Christian rebels challenged the authority of the emperor
        2. China's agricultural heartland was devastated
    4. The Boxer Rebellion (1900)
      1. The Boxers
        1. Secret society of men trained in martial arts
        2. Antiforeign and antimissionary
        3. Attacked foreign engineers, destroyed railway lines, and marched on Beijing
      2. The European response
        1. Great powers drew together
        2. Repression of the Boxers
      3. The rebellion highlighted the vulnerability of European imperial power
    5. The new imperialism in 1900
      1. Asia is partitioned
      2. Japan alone retains its independence
      3. British: India, Burma, Malaya, Australia, and New Zealand
      4. Dutch: Indonesia
      5. French: Indochina
      6. Problems
        1. Struggle between great powers exacerbated nationalist feelings
        2. The destabilizing effects of the new imperialism
    6. Russian imperialism
      1. Policy of annexation
      2. Southern colonization
        1. Georgia (1801)
        2. Bessarabia, Turkestan, and Armenia
        3. Brought Russia and Britain close to war, especially over Afghanistan
      3. The "Great Game"
      4. Toward the East
        1. The Russo-Japanese War (1905)
          1. Russian naval forces were humiliated
          2. United States brokered the peace treaty
  5. The French Empire and the Civilizing Mission
    1. The French in Algeria
      1. Algeria as a settler state
        1. Utopian socialist communities
        2. Exiled revolutionaries of 1848
        3. Winegrowers
        4. Not all settlers were French
      2. Under the Third Republic (1870), Algeria was made a department of France
        1. Gave French settlers full rights of republican citizenship
        2. Consolidated privileges
        3. Disenfranchised indigenous populations
        4. Differentiated "good" Berbers and "bad" Arabs
      3. After 1870: the "civilizing mission"
        1. Reinforcing the purpose of the French republic and French prestige
        2. Jules Ferry (1832-1893) argued for expansion into Indochina
        3. French acquisitions
          1. Tunisia (1881)
          2. Northern and central Vietnam (1883)
          3. Laos and Cambodia (1893)
        4. Federation of French West Africa (1893)
          1. Rationalizing the economic exploitation of the area
          2. "Enhancing the value" of the region
          3. Public programs served French interests only
  6. The Scramble for Africa and the Congo
    1. The Congo Free State
      1. The 1870s
        1. A new drive into central Africa— the fertile valleys of the Congo River
        2. European colonizers under the Belgian king, Leopold II (1835-1909, r. 1865-1909)
        3. Herbert M. Stanley and his "scientific" journeys
        4. International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of the Congo (1876)
          1. Signed treaties with local elites
          2. Opened the Congo to commercial exploitation (palm oil, rubber, diamonds)
        5. Other colonizers reacted (especially Portugal)
        6. The Treaty of Berlin (1884)
          1. Chaired by Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)
          2. Established ground rules for a new phase of European expansion
          3. Britain, France, and Germany joined forces to settle the issue
          4. The Congo would be open to free trade and commerce
        7. The Congo Free State
          1. Actually run by Leopold's private company
          2. Slave trade suppressed in favor of free labor
          3. The Congo becomes a Belgian colony (1908)
    2. The partition of Africa
      1. Colonial powers increase their holdings in Africa (1880s)
      2. Germany
        1. Bismarck was a reluctant colonizer
        2. Seized strategic locations (Cameroon and Tanzania)
      3. France
        1. Aimed to move eastward across the continent
      4. Britain
        1. Southern and eastern Africa
        2. Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902)
          1. Made a fortune from South African diamond mines (DeBeers)
          2. Prime minister of Cape Colony (1890)
          3. Personal goal was to build an African empire founded on diamonds
          4. Carved out territories in Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Botswana
        3. The "Cape-to-Cairo" railway
        4. Making Britain self-sufficient
  7. Imperial Culture
    1. Images of empire
      1. Images of empire were everywhere
      2. Advertising
      3. Museums displayed the products of empire
      4. Music halls and imperial songs
      5. Empire and identity
        1. The "civilizing mission" of the French
        2. Bringing progress to other lands
        3. Women and empire
      6. Theories of race
        1. Arthur de Gobineau (1816-1882)
          1. The Inequality of the Races (1853-1855)
          2. Race as the master key to understanding the world's problems
          3. The racial question overshadowed all others
          4. Slavery proved the racial inferiority of the slave
        2. Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855-1927)
          1. Making racial theory more scientific
          2. Tied racial theories to Darwinism and Herbert Spencer
          3. Races change (evolve) over time
        3. Francis Galton (1822-1911)
          1. Eugenics: the science of improving racial qualities
          2. Selective breeding
        4. Karl Pearson (1857-1936)
          1. Systematic study of intelligence and genius
        5. The rhetoric of progress, the civilizing mission, and race
          1. Provided a rationale for imperial conquest
      7. Critics
        1. Hobson and Lenin criticized imperialism as an act of greed and antidemocratic arrogance
        2. Joseph Conrad argued that imperialism signified deep problems
        3. The Pan-African Congress (1900)
          1. The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of race
      8. Colonial cultures
        1. Growth of Bombay, Calcutta, and Shanghai
        2. Colonialism created new hybrid cultures
        3. Annexed areas as laboratories for creating orderly and disciplined societies
        4. Worry over preserving national traditions and identity
          1. Should education be Westernized?
          2. Fraternization with indigenous peoples might undermine European power
          3. Sexual relations
        5. Compromises about "acceptability"
  8. Crisis of Empire at the Turn of the Twentieth Century
    1. Europe in 1900
      1. Crisis
      2. Sharp tensions between Western nations
      3. The expansion of European economic and military commitments to territories overseas
    2. Fashoda (1898)
      1. Britain and France faced one another for dominance of Africa
    3. Ethiopia
      1. Italy developed a small empire along the shores of the Red Sea (1880s to 1890s)
        1. Annexed Eritrea and parts of Somalia
      2. An expedition sent to conquer Ethiopia (1896)
      3. The Ethiopians killed six thousand Italians at Adowa
    4. South Africa: the Boer War
      1. Afrikaners (Boers)—Dutch and Swiss settlers who had arrived in the early nineteenth century
      2. Troubled relationship with the British in South Africa
      3. Afrikaners set up two free states: Transvaal and the Orange Free State
      4. Afrikaners and British went to war (1899)
      5. British army was completely unprepared for war
      6. British government refused to compromise
        1. The British eventually seized Pretoria
      7. A guerrilla war dragged on for three years
      8. British used concentration camps where Afrikaner citizens were rounded up
      9. The Union of South Africa—British and Boers shared power
    5. U.S. imperialism
      1. Spanish-American War (1898)
        1. Antecedents
          1. War with Mexico in the 1840s
          2. The conquest of new territories
          3. Texas and California
        2. Conflict with Spain
          1. Spanish imperial authority face problems in the Caribbean and Pacific colonies
          2. American press sided with the rebels
        3. The explosion of the Maine in Havana
        4. The United States stepped in to protect its economic interests
        5. Spanish defeat undermined the Spanish monarchy
      2. The annexation of Puerto Rico and protectorate over Cuba
      3. Panama
        1. U.S.-backed rebellion in 1903
        2. Recognized Panama as a republic
        3. The Panama Canal (1914)
      4. Intervention in Hawaii and Santo Domingo
      5. Renewed missionary activity
  9. Conclusion
    1. Rapid extension of formal European control
    2. The West as a self-consciously imperial culture