CHAPTER
FORTY


STUDY QUESTIONS
  1. "Considering the obstacles in its path, nationalism might never have progressed far had not British rule given it impetus and the framework within which it could develop." Discuss the meaning of this statement and assess its validity. What are the obstacles referred to?
  2. From what groups did the Indian National Congress draw its early supporters?
  3. In what ways did the Government of India Act of 1919 fall short of expectations?
  4. How did the background of Jawaharlal Nehru influence his policies as prime minister of independent India?
  5. Trace the changes in the strength and influence of the Congress party, and the reasons for those changes.
  6. How did Mohandas K. Gandhi's experience in South Africa affect his thinking and his future course of action?
  7. What were the primary principles upon which Gandhi based his political activism?
  8. Discuss the reasons for the difficulty in forging Hindu-Muslim unity in South Asia.
  9. What were the objectives of the "Constructive Program" promoted by Gandhi and others during the 1920s?
  10. What was the significance--both symbolic and practical--of the "march to the sea" in 1930?
  11. Despite achieving majorities in over half of the British provinces of India in the 1937 election, the Congress party was unable to bring about unity or meaningful reform. Explain the reasons for this.
  12. How did the Second World War affect relations between the Congress party and the British government?
  13. What factors led to the decision to create two separate states out of British-ruled India? What problems did partition solve? What new problems did it create?
  14. What aspects of Gandhi's dream for India were realized? Which were not?
  15. Outline the major features of the Indian constitution of 1950.
  16. What foundations for substantial economic development can be found in India?
  17. Why has the problem of poverty in India proved so difficult to solve?
  18. Assess the accomplishments and shortcomings of the rule of Jawaharlal Nehru.
  19. Describe the major policies of Indira Gandhi's first term as prime minister. What were the chief excesses of her term in office?
  20. How did the events at the Golden Temple in Amritsar in 1984 demonstrate the precarious nature of Indian political and social order?
  21. What aspects of Indian industrial and economic development have been relatively successful in the 1980s and 1990s?
  22. What are the most visibly persistent social and economic problems in India?
  23. Explain the roots of the separation of Bangladesh from Pakistan.
  24. What have been the major obstacles to democracy in Pakistan? What has stood in the way of efforts in the past to establish an Islamic republic there?
  25. What was unusual about the accession to power of Benazir Bhutto in Pakistan? What initial policies did she pursue, and how did these differ from those of her predecessors?
  26. What are the special economic challenges facing Bangladesh?
  27. How do you account for the prominent role of women in post-independence politics in South Asia?
  28. Briefly describe changes in India's foreign relations, and the reasons for them.
PROBLEMS
  1. Why was Gandhi so careful to point out that passive resistance was not "only a weapon of the weak".
  2. Based on your reading of Gandhi, what are the differences between passive resistance as a strategy and passive resistance as a moral principle?
  3. According to Nehru, what fundamental issues confronted the world in 1948? What did he feel the experience of India could contribute to solving world problems?
  4. Martin Luther King, Jr., openly acknowledged the influence of Gandhi on his own thinking. Examine the American civil rights leader's writings and actions to see where that influence was most visible.
  5. Based on a study of geography, culture, history, and politics, propose a solution to the problem of poverty in South Asia.
  6. Study the origin and history of the Sikhs. What has been their role in South Asian history, culture, and politics?
  7. Research the question of why Kashmir and Bengal have been the focus of so much controversy and violence.


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REVIEW: World Civilizations
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