1. How do you explain Mustafa Kemal's success in effecting a great transformation in Turkey? On what major areas did he focus his reforms?
  2. How did the Turkish constitution of 1982 differ from the one that established the Second Turkish Republic in 1961?
  3. What are the foundations of democracy in Turkey, and what have been the limitations upon its development?
  4. How has Turkey's geographic position affected its twentieth-century history?
  5. Trace the stages in Britain's involvement in Egypt in the twentieth century? What factors have determined the degree to which Britain has been actively involved in events in Egypt?
  6. What were the terms of the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of Friendship and Alliance (1936)? Why were they never fully realized?
  7. What prompted the 1956 Israeli invasion of Egypt? What were the results of the invasion?
  8. In what respects were Egyptian presidents Nasser and Sadat successful? Where did they fail?
  9. What changes in Egypt's domestic policies were introduced by President Hosni Mubarak?
  10. What are the chief economic problems confronting Egypt?
  11. What were the causes of the conflict between Arabs and Jews that reached a climax following the Second World War?
  12. What prompted Israel's invasion of Lebanon in 1982, and what were the consequences of the invasion?
  13. How did the character of the state of Israel change during the first thirty years of its existence?
  14. What important steps did Sheik Yamani take to help strengthen the Saudi Arabian state?
  15. What were the causes of the Iranian revolution of 1979? What were its unique features?
  16. What were some of the key features of the Islamic state in Iran under the Ayatollah Khomeini?
  17. What were the causes of the war between Iran and Iraq that began in 1980? What were the results of the war for both sides?
  18. What efforts have been made toward pan-Arab unity? Why have they not been more successful?
  19. Explain how the discovery of diamonds and gold in South Africa contributed to the coming of the Boer War.
  20. Trace the process by which segregationist sentiment became state policy in South Africa.
  21. What does "apartheid" mean? What was the basis of apartheid as state policy? Cite some specific policies that resulted from the policy of apartheid.
  22. How did the 1960 Sharpeville demonstration and its aftermath affect the stance of the ANC? How did it affect the policies of the minority white government of South Africa?
  23. Why did the South African constitution of 1984 lead to a new round of violence?
  24. Outline the steps in the gradual dismantling of apartheid in South Africa. What factors induced the government to introduce reforms? What groups within South Africa were not satisfied with the way in which apartheid was eliminated as state policy, and why?
  25. What was the basis for the economic boom in colonial Africa following World War II? What were some of its results?
  26. How do you account for the violence and long duration of the independence struggle in Algeria?
  27. What factors have hampered the growth of unity within African states?
  28. What have been some of the most serious problems to plague post-independence African states? In what areas have African states made notable progress, and in what areas have they been less successful?
  29. What progress toward democratization has been made in Africa? What have been the chief obstacles in the establishment of democratic rule?
  30. Describe the role of international organizations like the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in the political and economic development of Africa?
  31. How do you account for the fact that Africa has continued to be relatively marginalized in international affairs?
  32. What factors have limited the sorely needed development of agriculture in Africa? What reasons are there for hope that agricultural prospects may be improving?
  1. Investigate any of the following topics:
      --The personality and achievements of Mustafa Kemal (Atatrk)
      --The history of the Suez Canal
      --Arab nationalism
      --The role of oil in the politics of the Middle East
      --The founding of the state of Israel
      --The apartheid program in South Africa and its effects
      --The role of the United Nations in the Congo
      --The career and influence of Jomo Kenyatta
      --Kurdish minorities in Middle East states
  2. After examining the Camp David Accords, the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty of 1979, and current relations between Israel and the PLO, construct your own formula for achieving peace in the Middle East.
  3. "Nationalism proved to be a stronger force than pan-Africanism." Elaborate on this statement. Also, explore the idea of pan-Africanism in both theory and practice, considering both its strengths and its weaknesses.
  4. Examine newspaper accounts or other media coverage of current events in the Middle East and Africa. Trace the historical background of the problems presented in news stories.
  5. Explore the reasons why so many post-liberation African states at some point in their history were ruled by regimes that were Marxist to a greater or lesser degree.
  6. Study the thought of Kwame Nkrumah, J. B. Danquah, L‚opold S‚dar Senghor, and Julius Nyerere.
  7. Senegalese poet and president L‚opold S‚dar Senghor once asserted that "nation is the first reality of the twentieth century." Discuss this statement with reference to the twentieth-century experience of the Middle East and Africa. Do you agree with Senghor?


W.W. Norton
REVIEW: World Civilizations
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