CHAPTER
THIRTY-SEVEN


STUDY QUESTIONS
  1. Why was the Second World War followed so quickly by a "Cold War"? Why did the Cold War continue for so long?
  2. What factors help account for Stalin's anti-Western policy? What was the basis of his hostility toward and suspicion of the United States?
  3. Which of the eastern European countries achieved the greatest degree of independence from Moscow during the Cold War era?
  4. How was rivalry between the superpowers illustrated by, and affected by, the organization of NATO? The division of Germany?
  5. What was the nature of the "thaw" under Khrushchev, and what were its limitations?
  6. What did the events of 1956 in Poland and Hungary demonstrate about the limits of Soviet tolerance toward satellite states?
  7. What reforms became known as the "Prague Spring"?
  8. How did relations between the two Germanys change under the administration of the West German chancellor Willy Brandt?
  9. What brought on the "Solidarity" movement in Poland in the 1980s?
  10. What accounts for the rapid economic recovery of western Europe following World War II?
  11. Why was economic growth more phenomenal in defeated West Germany than in France or Britain? Why was British growth particularly sluggish?
  12. In what ways did economic growth lead to an expansion of social services in western Europe?
  13. Describe the origin and purpose of the European Economic Community. Compare this with efforts at eastern European economic integration.
  14. What changes could be observed in Socialist and other parties of the Left in the postwar period?
  15. What policies did Charles de Gaulle pursue as the leader of France? How did his leadership affect France's relations with its neighbors and beyond?
  16. How did the Canada Act change Canada's relations with Britain? How did it change Canada's internal administration?
  17. Describe ways in which Canada and the United States found their interests increasingly connected in the postwar era.
  18. Explain the basis of Qu‚bec's claim that it is a "distinct society" within Canada. How have the federal and other provincial governments dealt with Qu‚bec's assertion of distinct rights?
  19. How and why did Australia's trade and diplomatic relations change after World War II?
  20. Outline changes in population in postwar Europe. What were the causes of population shifts? What other changes did population changes produce?
  21. What is a "managerial class"? How did this group differ from previous participants in business?
  22. How did class consciousness and class relations change following World War II in the advanced economies of the West?
  23. Describe some of the ways in which the dilemmas and difficulties of the human condition found voice in postwar American and European literature, film, and other arts.
  24. Why did Marxism appeal to a considerable number of European intellectuals?
  25. How did the views on technology of Jean Baudrillard and Jean-François Lyotard differ? Which view is closest to your own?
  26. What is meant by "abstract expressionism" in art? What do its practitioners attempt to convey?
PROBLEMS
  1. Investigate any of the following:
      a. The theories of Trofim Lysenko
      b. The liberalization movement in Czechoslovakia during the 1960s
      c. The "Solidarity" movement in Poland
      d. The development and operation of the European Economic Community
      e. The de-Stalinization movement and the "thaw" under Khrushchev
      f. The "communications revolution" in the West
  2. To what extent do the plays of Samuel Beckett, Harold Pinter, or the "Theater of the Absurd" reflect disillusionment with twentieth-century culture and society? (Study at least one specific example.)
  3. Read The Stranger by Albert Camus, and analyze his view of the dilemma of human existence. Compare his views on the human condition and his approach to political activity with those of Jean-Paul Sartre.


ResourceResearchReference


W.W. Norton
REVIEW: World Civilizations
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