CHAPTER
THIRTY-TWO


STUDY QUESTIONS
  1. How did shifts in class structure in the late nineteenth century threaten the stability of European society?
  2. How did the constitution established by Bismarck provide for Prussian domination of the German empire?
  3. What democratic features did the constitution of the German Empire include?
  4. Explain Bismarck's motives in his Kulturkampf against the Church. What was the outcome of this struggle?
  5. How did Bismarck attempt to meet the threat posed by German socialists? To what extent was he successful?
  6. To what extent and in what directions did Emperor William II modify Bismarck's policies?
  7. How do you account for the increasing political strength of the German Social Democrats, as evidenced by their gains in the election of 1912? Why were they unable to enact a genuinely Socialist program despite these gains?
  8. What democratic features were incorporated in the constitution of the Third French Republic? In what ways did it copy the English parliamentary system of government? What factors made for unstable ministries?
  9. How did the Dreyfus affair lead to an attack upon the Catholic church? What was the outcome of this attack?
  10. Explain the reasons why Germany had adopted such a large amount of social legislation by 1890.
  11. Compare the labor policies of the French and German governments in the period under review.
  12. What reform measures had brought Britain nearer to representative democracy by the 1880s?
  13. Explain the nature and function of "ministerial responsibility" in the British political system.
  14. What were the origins of the British Labour Party?
  15. Why did the Liberal party budget of 1909 produce a constitutional crisis? How was the crisis resolved?
  16. Summarize the program of social and economic reform in Britain during the Liberal era of the early twentieth century. Why did these reforms fail to satisfy the working class?
  17. Summarize the reforms in the Russian judiciary under Tsar Alexander II.
  18. Explain the importance of the populist movement in late-nineteenth-century Russia.
  19. What policies were adopted by Alexander III and Nicholas II to stem the tide of reform?
  20. Why was a working-class consciousness slow in developing in Russia?
  21. What were the objectives of the Russian Social Revolutionaries and Social Democrats, respectively?
  22. Explain the split between Mensheviks and Bolsheviks within the Social Democratic party. What was Lenin's program for the Bolsheviks?
  23. What was the immediate cause of the Russian revolution of 1905? Did it achieve any degree of success? Why did it not accomplish the overthrow of autocracy?
  24. Why did the introduction of universal male suffrage in the Austrian portion of the Dual Monarchy fail to satisfy the several national groups?
  25. Indicate the stages in the dismemberment of the European portions of the Ottoman empire between 1829 and 1914.
  26. Why was domestic turmoil in the United States less severe than in other major Western countries?
  27. Describe the evolution of the rival alliance systems between 1872 and 1907. What factors led to the weakening of the Triple Alliance?
  28. What arguments does Fritz Fischer advance in arguing for Germany's prime responsibility for the start of World War I? What are the objections to these arguments? Was Germany the only heavily militarized state in 1914?
  29. Cite examples, in both large and small states, of nationalist ambitions threatening to European stability.
  30. Point out the effects of the Moroccan crises, the Bosnian crisis of 1908, and the Balkan war of 1912 in heightening international tension.
PROBLEMS
  1. Investigate further any of the following:
      a. The Kulturkampf
      b. The Dreyfus affair
      c. The Russian revolution of 1905
      d. The British campaign for women's suffrage
      e. The evolution of the Triple Entente
      f. The Progressive movement in the United States
      g. The early career of Lenin
      h. The rise of the British Labour party
  2. Compare the English parliamentary system with the system of France under the Third Republic.
  3. The outbreak of war in 1914 can be attributed, in part, to each of the following: the rival European alliance systems; the growth of militarism; social tensions and instability within the various countries. Which one do you consider most important? Substantiate your conclusions.


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