- Explain each of the following in relation to Marx's analysis of capitalist economy: a) the labor
theory of value, b) the proletariat, c) the petty bourgeoisie.
- How did Marx distinguish between socialism and communism in his theory of revolution?
- In Marx's interpretation of history, what role was played by class struggle and by the
dialectical view of conflict and resolution?
- During what period was the International headed by Marx most successful? Why did it
- How did Marx view the bloody conflict of 1871 in Paris? Did the facts substantiate his
interpretation of the nature and objectives of the Commune?
- Explain the appeal in the nineteenth century of Marx's long and complex work Capital.
- Why did socialism gain ground more slowly on Europe's periphery than in its center?
- What were the main differences between the "purist" and the "revisionist" socialists? Which
group made more headway during the late nineteenth century?
- Distinguish between anarchism and syndicalism. What ideas or objectives did each of them
share with socialism?
- Explain Darwin's idea of natural selection.
- Compare Lamarck's and Darwin's theories of evolution.
- How did Weismann and De Vries modify the Darwinian theory?
- Why was the impact of Darwin's biological theory so disturbing to believers in an orderly
- What adaptation did the Social Darwinists make of Darwin's theory?
- Explain Freud's theory of human motivation and behavior. Why were dreams important to
- Although Nietzsche was a romantic poet more than a scientist, he employed a theory of
evolution in his philosophy. Explain this statement.
- How did both behaviorism and psychoanalysis encourage a deterministic outlook?
- In what different ways did leading religious groups and individuals react to new scientific and
- How did the scope and character of the reading public change in the later nineteenth century?
How did writers and publishers react to this change?
- What change in the artist's conception of the nature of art and of his own relationship to
society had become evident by the end of the nineteenth century? What does it mean to say that
"artists and public were ceasing to speak the same language"?
- What different aspects of realism are seen in the works of Zola, Dickens, and Hardy,
- Describe the development of painting from realism to cubism.