- What is the justification for speaking of a second industrial revolution following 1870?
- Why was steel slow to replace iron as the key material in manufacturing? What were the
advantages of steel over iron?
- What did each of the following contribute to revolutionizing the production of steel in the later
nineteenth century: Henry Bessemer, Pierre Martin, Sidney Gilchrist and Sidney Gilchrist
- What were the most important technological changes during the second period of industrial
- What was the importance of the invention of the steam turbine? Of the internal combustion
- What factors caused a drastic population increase during the period 1870-1914? In what parts
of Europe was the increase greatest?
- How did the new industrial developments contribute to a rise in the standard of living?
- "In all the countries of Europe, and in the United States, the pattern is one of expansion and
consolidation." What factors promoted this trend? Why did it not entirely eliminate small
- How did changes in the scale of industry and an increasing emphasis on efficiency lead to a
change in wage scales?
- What advantages and disadvantages for workers resulted from the increased scale of
manufacturing? What were the advantages and disadvantages for employers?
- Explain how the increase in scale and efficiency of production led to greater concentration of
- What is the difference between vertical combination and horizontal combination as forms of
corporate growth? What is the objective of each type?
- Why did monopolistic combinations develop more in Germany than in Great Britain?
- Why, during a time of tariff increases throughout Europe, was Britain able to continue to
espouse the doctrine of free trade?
- How did economic trends in the later nineteenth century affect the relationship between
government and business in western European countries?
- In what areas of the world did the developed European markets look most avidly for new
- Compare J. A. Hobson's interpretation of imperialism with Lenin's interpretation.
- In analyzing the causes of the "new" imperialism, what weight would you attach to economic,
political, strategic, and psychological factors, respectively?
- How did innovations in technology contribute to the advance of European imperialism in the
late nineteenth century?
- What important acquisitions in Africa were made by the British, the French, the Germans,
and the Belgians, respectively? What reversals did the British suffer?
- What "ground rules" for imperialism in Africa were formulated at the 1884-1885 Congress of
- Explain how British economic objectives in the Transvaal contributed to the outbreak of war
in South Africa.
- How did an initially small interest in India on the part of the British evolve into major
economic and political involvement?
- Trace the changes in the level of involvement of the British East India Company in British
involvement in India. How did the East India Company survive the Charger Act of 1834?
- What were the important results of the "Great Mutiny" of 1857-1858? What policy changes
- Explain the theory behind British educational efforts in India, and the effects of those efforts.
- What were the discernible effects of imperialism upon the non-Western peoples that were
subjected to it?
- To what extent did the United States become an imperial power in the late nineteenth and
early twentieth centuries?