CHAPTER
THIRTY


STUDY QUESTIONS
  1. What is the justification for speaking of a second industrial revolution following 1870?
  2. Why was steel slow to replace iron as the key material in manufacturing? What were the advantages of steel over iron?
  3. What did each of the following contribute to revolutionizing the production of steel in the later nineteenth century: Henry Bessemer, Pierre Martin, Sidney Gilchrist and Sidney Gilchrist Thomas?
  4. What were the most important technological changes during the second period of industrial development?
  5. What was the importance of the invention of the steam turbine? Of the internal combustion engine?
  6. What factors caused a drastic population increase during the period 1870-1914? In what parts of Europe was the increase greatest?
  7. How did the new industrial developments contribute to a rise in the standard of living?
  8. "In all the countries of Europe, and in the United States, the pattern is one of expansion and consolidation." What factors promoted this trend? Why did it not entirely eliminate small workshops?
  9. How did changes in the scale of industry and an increasing emphasis on efficiency lead to a change in wage scales?
  10. What advantages and disadvantages for workers resulted from the increased scale of manufacturing? What were the advantages and disadvantages for employers?
  11. Explain how the increase in scale and efficiency of production led to greater concentration of capital.
  12. What is the difference between vertical combination and horizontal combination as forms of corporate growth? What is the objective of each type?
  13. Why did monopolistic combinations develop more in Germany than in Great Britain?
  14. Why, during a time of tariff increases throughout Europe, was Britain able to continue to espouse the doctrine of free trade?
  15. How did economic trends in the later nineteenth century affect the relationship between government and business in western European countries?
  16. In what areas of the world did the developed European markets look most avidly for new markets?
  17. Compare J. A. Hobson's interpretation of imperialism with Lenin's interpretation.
  18. In analyzing the causes of the "new" imperialism, what weight would you attach to economic, political, strategic, and psychological factors, respectively?
  19. How did innovations in technology contribute to the advance of European imperialism in the late nineteenth century?
  20. What important acquisitions in Africa were made by the British, the French, the Germans, and the Belgians, respectively? What reversals did the British suffer?
  21. What "ground rules" for imperialism in Africa were formulated at the 1884-1885 Congress of Berlin?
  22. Explain how British economic objectives in the Transvaal contributed to the outbreak of war in South Africa.
  23. How did an initially small interest in India on the part of the British evolve into major economic and political involvement?
  24. Trace the changes in the level of involvement of the British East India Company in British involvement in India. How did the East India Company survive the Charger Act of 1834?
  25. What were the important results of the "Great Mutiny" of 1857-1858? What policy changes followed?
  26. Explain the theory behind British educational efforts in India, and the effects of those efforts.
  27. What were the discernible effects of imperialism upon the non-Western peoples that were subjected to it?
  28. To what extent did the United States become an imperial power in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?
PROBLEMS
  1. England's early leadership in the Industrial Revolution ultimately proved to be a disadvantage. Defend or attack this proposition.
  2. Study the part played by any of the following in the development of late-nineteenth-century imperialism:
      a. Racist doctrines
      b. Technological and medical progress
      c. Intensified national sentiment
      d. Economic problems within the European countries
  3. Investigate any of the following:
      a. The evolution of steelmaking technology
      b. The development of the internal combustion engine
      c. Achievements in the field of industrial chemistry
      d. Anglo-Germanic industrial rivalry, 1870-1914
      e. The Boer War
  4. Study in detail the history of the British East India Company in both India and China.
  5. Compare American objectives and methods in pursuit of overseas interests with those of England, France, or Portugal. Note both similarities and differences (if you see any).
  6. Explore further the paradox of democratic countries (England, the United States) engaging in undemocratic imperial enterprises. How did democratic countries justify imperialism?
  7. Read William Leach's Land of Desire. What argument does Leach make regarding the promotion of consumption in the United States beginning in the late nineteenth century? What forces drove the increase in consumption, and whose interests did it serve? Do you accept Leach's argument?


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