1. Differentiate between the terms nationalism and nation-building. How can liberalism be tied to each?
  2. Explain how romanticism aided the rise of nationalism. Why was this especially evident in Germany?
  3. How did the romantics' interpretation of history differ from that favored by the thinkers of the Enlightenment?
  4. How did Hegel apply his dialectic concept (thesis, antithesis, synthesis) to history in general and to German history in particular?
  5. Although he seems the epitome of romanticism, Goethe departed from the romantic school in significant respects. Explain.
  6. Summarize the administrative and political reforms of Stein and Hardenberg in Prussia.
  7. How did the economic ideas of Friedrich List differ from those of Adam Smith? Why did List's ideas appeal to many nationalists?
  8. What were the strengths and the weaknesses of Pan-Slavism as a cultural nationalist movement?
  9. What were the obstacles to nationalist aspirations in the Austrian empire? In Italy? In Ireland?
  10. How did the force of nationalism both cause and ultimately frustrate the 1848 revolutions in the Austrian empire?
  11. What were the professed objectives of the Frankfurt Assembly of 1848? How did the conflict between liberalism and nationalism contribute to its failure? What conflicting nationalist goals were also evident?
  12. How did Bismarck utilize each of the following in his program of German unification between 1862 and 1870: a) the Danish war of 1864, b) the Seven Weeks' War of 1866, c) the Ems telegram, d) the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871?
  13. Identify the steps in the national unification of Italy between 1852 and 1870. Show how these steps were related to those leading to the unification of Germany.
  14. What were the contributions of Mazzini, Cavour, and Garibaldi, respectively, to Italian reunification?
  15. Compare Jeffersonian and Jacksonian democracy.
  16. Why were European governments inclined to sympathize with the Confederacy during the American Civil War?
  17. "Nation-building in Europe and the United States helped insure the continuing expansion of capitalism." Explain how.
  18. How did "dominion nationality" differ from nation-building in Europe? What similarities did the two display?
  19. How were the competing interests of French and British Canadians dealt with?
  20. Describe the effects of the discovery of gold in New South Wales and Victoria. What new policies resulted from the gold rush?
  21. Why was there such a relatively high degree of government ownership of enterprises so early in Australia, as compared with Great Britain?
  22. What part did the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars play in the revolutionary movements in Latin America?
  23. How were the revolutions in Latin America related to the North American Revolution? In what important respects did they differ from the North American Revolution?
  24. In what respects was Brazil's transition from colony to independent statehood unique?
  25. Describe how the plantation system of land ownership contributed to economic and social inequality and political instability in Latin America.
  26. What were the basic causes of instability in the newly-formed Latin American republics?
  27. What factors assisted progress toward stability in Uruguay and Chile?
  1. Investigate further any of the following:
      a. Nationalistic elements in the operas of Wagner or Verdi
      b. Delacroix's paintings
      c. Hegel's dialectic philosophy
      d. The philosophy of Fichte
      e. The Hungarian Revolution of 1848
      f. Garibaldi and the One Thousand
      g. The roles of Bismarck and Napoleon III, respectively, in the precipitation of the Franco-Prussian War
  2. How was it possible for romanticism to include both conservatives and radicals?
  3. Explore the historical roots of modern nationalism. Consider ways in which modern nationalism differs from nineteenth-century varieties.
  4. Read number fourteen of The Federalist written by James Madison and discuss his views on majority rule versus minority rights.
  5. Read the original unamended Constitution of the United States. What can you infer about the political philosophy of the men who wrote it?
  6. Why did Jacksonian Democrats approve a strong executive?
  7. Investigate the career and political philosophy of Simón Bolívar.
  8. Compare the process of nation-building in Brazil with that in Mexico.
  9. "Latin American movements for independence did not fulfill the high expectations of their protagonists." Explore further the reasons for this throughout Latin America.
  10. Critique the value of the concept of nationalism for understanding the history of the nineteenth century. Point out both the strengths and the weaknesses of the concept.


W.W. Norton

REVIEW: World Civilizations
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