1. Define "liberalism" in its nineteenth-century context.
  2. What was the "Concert of Europe" intended to accomplish? Why did it largely disintegrate in the decade following 1815?
  3. How did European rivalries help to vindicate the United States' Monroe Doctrine? Why was Britain willing to support such a statement?
  4. What did Tsar Nicholas I mean by "orthodoxy, autocracy, and nationality"?
  5. Why did revolutions in Spain's colonies succeed while liberalism was being suppressed in Spain?
  6. During a period of general reaction, why did English conservative politicians support some reform measures? Why type of reform did they most stoutly oppose?
  7. In what ways and to what extent was the English Parliament changed by the 1832 Reform Bill? Which class did the reforms benefit the most?
  8. What were the objectives of the European revolutions of 1830? Where did they succeed? Why did the revolution fail in Poland?
  9. What group benefited most from the Revolution of 1830 in France? How did they benefit?
  10. How did English poor law reform reflect the beliefs and interests of the middle class?
  11. How do both the new poor law and the repeal of the Corn Law illustrate the nineteenth- century philosophy of liberalism?
  12. What were the aims of the Chartist movement in England? How did its objectives differ from those of the Trades Unions?
  13. Contrast mid-nineteenth-century England and France with regard to (a) the progress of social and economic reform, and (b) the educational systems.
  14. Why did Louis Philippe's regime, originally supported by French liberals, succumb to revolution?
  15. How did the French February Revolution (1848) differ from the Revolution of 1830? Although the February Revolution succeeded in ending the monarchy, what problems did it pose for the future?
  16. How did Louis Napoleon gain the support of various groups in his rise to power? By what means did he maintain power after making himself emperor?
  17. How did the Reform Bill of 1867 modify the English electoral system?
  18. Who were the group referred to as labor "aristocrats" in Britain? What kinds of changes did they advocate, and why?
  19. During the later years of the nineteenth century there was apparent solidarity between the English middle class and working class in support of liberal programs. Why was this less the case in France during the same period?
  1. Investigate further any of the following:
      a. The personality and policies of Tsar Alexander I
      b. The July (1830) Revolution in France
      c. The February (1848) Revolution in France
      d. The career of Louis Napoleon before his accession to power
      e. The Chartist movement in England
      f. The political career of Benjamin Disraeli
  2. In the light of political developments in England and France, trace the evolution of the concept of liberalism during the nineteenth century in terms of the following considerations: a) elements of the population supporting it; b) typical exponents or leaders; c) political programs; d) economic objectives.
  3. Demonstrate how events and movements of nineteenth-century Europe reflect the ascendancy of the middle class. Indicate the changes that took place in the composition of the middle-class during this period and the factors limiting the success of its program.
  4. What did Mill see as the only circumstance under which an individual's exercise of liberty could be justifiably curtailed?
  5. How, in Mill's view, should societies deal with contrary opinions? How do you see this principle either honored or breached today?


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REVIEW: World Civilizations
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