1. What conditions in eighteenth-century Europe made it uniquely suitable as a site for the Industrial Revolution?
  2. How had commercial developments during the preceding two centuries paved the way for a revolution in industry?
  3. Describe what each of the following factors contributed to England's leadership in the early Industrial Revolution: a) geographical position; b) natural resources; c) social structure and traditions; d) the government's economic policy.
  4. Explain why English cotton manufacture expanded so dynamically during the first half of the nineteenth century.
  5. How did the expansion of textile manufacture stimulate the development of other industries?
  6. What were the advantages of using coal instead of wood as a fuel in the heating of molten metal? Can you think of any disadvantages?
  7. If the expansion and mechanization of industry was spread gradually over several generations, why did it nevertheless constitute a revolution?
  8. What physical and what political or social factors delayed the progress of the Industrial Revolution on the European continent?
  9. To what extent did the French Revolution inhibit, and to what extent did it promote, industrialization?
  10. What major change in the population of Europe occurred in the nineteenth century, and how did this affect the process of industrialization?
  11. Explain why government played a more active role in industrial development on the continent of Europe than in England.
  12. What two motives were uppermost in the rapid growth of railroads in the 1840s? To what extent did railroad construction promote, and to what extent did it slow, the pace of industrialization in Europe?
  13. Who were the "navvies"? What was their role in the process of industrialization?
  14. In what branches of industry did Britain retain a commanding lead in 1870? In which branches did pressure from competitors become most intense? Who were the major competitors?
  15. Why was the process of industrialization slowest in southern and eastern Europe?
  1. Investigate further any of the following:
      a. James Watt and the steam engine
      b. Early revolutionary inventions in the cotton cloth industry
      c. George Stephenson and the Stockton-Darlington railway
      d. The Prussian Zollverein
  • Compare developments in industry and transportation in England with those in France during the nineteenth century.
  • Examine the effects of European wars of the eighteenth century upon changes in commerce and industry.
  • Read Robinson Crusoe and analyze Defoe's views on industrial enterprise.
  • "Europe used its economic and, when necessary, its military strength to ensure that the world remained divided between the producers of manufactured goods--Europe itself--and suppliers of the necessary raw materials and buyers of finished goods--everyone else." Examine the long-term consequences (political, economic, cultural) of this arrangement.

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    REVIEW: World Civilizations
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