- "Just when Europe was expanding it was also dividing." Explain this statement. Why did the
rupture of European unity not prevent the extension of European power and influence?
- What is meant by referring to Europe as a "Community of Christendom"?
- Explain the reasons for European voyages of discovery.
- What were the major results of European expansion and colonization?
- What were the causes of the dramatic decline in native population in the Spanish colonies?
- Among the causes of the Protestant Reformation, abuses within the Roman Catholic Church
were one important factor. What were some of the characteristic abuses on the eve of the
- "Luther preferred a rigorously Augustinian system of theology to a medieval Thomistic one."
Explain the terms "Augustinian" and "Thomistic."
- How did Luther's private objections to Church practices turn into a public cause?
- Explain why German political authorities supported Luther's cause and why their support was
essential to its success.
- What were the important changes that Luther brought about in the Church in Germany?
- If their political objectives were similar to those of the German princes, why did the kings of
Spain and France not likewise break with the Catholic Church?
- How did King Henry VIII's marital difficulties lead to a break with Rome? What elements of
Catholicism did Henry retain in the Church of England?
- Why did Henry VIII's break with Rome have the support of so many people in England?
- Trace the fortunes of Catholicism and Protestantism in England from Henry VIII to Elizabeth I.
- What is meant by the Elizabethan compromise?
- What were the chief emphases in the creed of the Anabaptists? Why were they almost
- How did Calvin's religious ideas differ from those of Luther? Is it possible to say that one
was more medieval in his outlook? (In answering this question, be sure to explain how you are
interpreting the word "medieval.")
- Describe the work and the importance of the Council of Trent.
- How did the Jesuits differ from previous monastic orders? Why was their organization so
peculiarly fit to serve the Catholic Reformation?
- What was the relationship of the Protestant Reformation to the Renaissance? What were the
differences between the two movements?
- Point out the effects of the Protestant Reformation upon the following:
a) the theory and practice of state sovereignty
b) the growth of nationalism
c) the position of women in European society
- Compare and contrast the effects of the Catholic Reformation (Counter-Reformation) in
these same respects.