CHAPTER SEVENTEEN


STUDY QUESTIONS
  1. How have recent archaeological discoveries modified long-standing theories about the origins of New World civilization?
  2. What do you consider some of the most remarkable features of the ancient Andean civilization? What did it lack?
  3. Explain why the political organization of the Inca civilization is described as a confederation.
  4. What were the unique features of the Mayan calendar?
  5. Compare the religious practices and beliefs of the Mayas, Aztecs, and Incas.
  6. How do you account for the rigid structure of Inca society? What were its advantages and disadvantages?
  7. What is meant by "stateless societies" when describing Africa of this period? What kept these stateless societies together?
  8. What factors contributed to the rise of larger and more powerful empires in Africa during this period?
  9. Explain Mansa Musa's role in the growth of Islam in Africa.
  10. How do you explain Muhammad Tour‚'s success in building an expansive empire in West Africa?
  11. What were the major teachings of al-Maghili?
  12. What changes can you identify in the respective role of men and women in African societies?
  13. Outline the process of the emergence of Swahili civilization.
  14. What part did slavery and the slave trade play in Africa during this period?
  15. How did Madagascar's location affect its history?
  16. When did the Ethiopian kingdom reach its height, and what were the causes of its decline?
PROBLEMS
  1. Study the practice and significance of human sacrifice in the early American civilizations.
  2. Investigate the development of the calendar in Mesoamerican cultures and the unique features of the Mayan calendar.
  3. Try to determine the contributions of the Olmecs to succeeding cultures.
  4. Compare the impact of Islam in Africa with its impact in India.
  5. Explore the reasons for the decline of western Sudanic civilization after the fall of the Songhay empire in 1591.
  6. Compare and contrast al-Maghili's The Obligation of Princes with Niccol• Machiavelli's The Prince.
  7. Explore the similarities and contrasts between the architecture of the early American civilizations and that of ancient Egypt. Consider not only architectural styles, but functions as well.


ResourceResearchReference


W.W. Norton
REVIEW: World Civilizations
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