- What were the causes of the "agricultural revolution" in northern and western Europe? Why
did it not occur earlier than the High Middle Ages?
- Summarize the prerequisites for the agricultural revolution that were found in Europe.
- What specific advantages did the new agricultural techniques have over the old Roman farming
- What technological developments allowed horses to replace oxen as farm animals? What were
the advantages of the shift to horses?
- How did the greater use of iron help increase agricultural productivity?
- What effects did a stable food supply have on European history?
- Explain the origin of the medieval European manor. How did it differ from the old Roman
- Explain this statement: "The entire manorial system emphasized communal enterprise and
- What were the causes of the decline of serfdom in the thirteenth century?
- How did the nobility benefit from the agricultural revolution, even after the emancipation of
- Explain the origin of the code of chivalry. What was expected of a chivalric lord?
- How did the life style and social attitudes of the nobility change during the High Middle Ages?
- "Whereas the Romans were really only interested in land communications, medieval people,
starting in the eleventh century, concentrated on land transport." Explain this statement.
- Explain the growth of European towns in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. What were its
major causes? How was this growth related to changes in agriculture?
- How did medieval guilds differ from modern trade unions?
- What functions did medieval guilds serve in addition to purely professional ones?
- How did the growth of a merchant class affect prevailing attitudes toward moneylending and
- Summarize the effects of the revival of trade in western Europe.
- In 1050, Germany was the most centralized European territory. By 1300 it was the most
fragmented. Explain how this came about.
- How did the emperor Frederick II, in spite of his brilliance and energy, contribute to the
misfortunes of both Italy and Germany?
- Define political feudalism as it existed in western medieval Europe. In view of its
decentralized character, how could it nevertheless contribute to the growth of stable
- How did William the Conqueror aid the development of a national monarchy in England?
- What developments in the judiciary mark the reign of Henry II as one of the most momentous
in all of English history?
- What were the consequences of the disagreement between Henry II and Thomas Becket?
- Explain why Magna Carta was basically a feudal document rather than a "charter of liberties
for the common people." What principles of value did it embody for the future?
- In response to what needs did a trained officialdom develop in England?
- What was the origin of the English Parliament? How did its composition change and its
importance grow under Edward I?
- Why did the Capetians have more difficulty in strengthening the monarchy in France than did
the Norman rulers in England? How were they able to overcome these difficulties?