Below are a number of items with which you should be familiar after reading Chapter 24. Enter your answer in the blank. Note: You must enter NUMERIC VALUES, then click your mouse anywhere outside of the input box to check your answer.
Boyle's Law:
1. explained the circulation of the blood.
2. described the behavior of gasses under pressure.
3. stated the principle of the conservation of energy.
4. was a significant penal reform.

The discoverer of the cellular structure of plants was:
1. Robert Boyle
2. Marcello Malpighi
3. Jan Swannerdam
4. Robert Hooke

In formulating the law of universal gravitation, Newton drew most heavily upon the work of:
1. Aristotle and Ptolemy.
2. late medieval scholastics.
3. Bacon and Descartes.
4. Copernicus and Kepler.

Enlightenment thinkers treasured the "scientific method" because they believed it would:
1. answer questions fundamental to all areas of inquiry.
2. make possible more accurate classification of organisms.
3. provide new products and new sources of energy.
4. all of the above.

In his The Spirit of Laws, Montesquieu advocated:
1. replacing monarchs with republics.
2. keeping human law in conformity with divine law.
3. resistance to change in established laws.
4. the separation of governmental powers.

The prime intent of the authors of the French Encyclopedia was:
1. to provide a useful reference work.
2. to enhance France's literary reputation.
3. to promote the advance and the understanding of science.
4. to foster an attitude of cynicism.

Among philosophers of the Enlightenment the outstanding skeptic was:
1. Hume.
2. Condorcet
3. Voltaire
4. Gibbon

The writer most influential in reforming penal codes was:
1. Smith
2. Beccaria
3. Diderot
4. Mendelssohn

An outstanding advance in the field of medicine in the 18th century was:
1. the discovery of penicillin.
2. the discovery of the brain.
3. the introduction of inoculation and vaccination.
4. the abandonment of bloodletting as a method of treatment.

Alexander Pope:
1. rejected Newtonian physics.
2. epitomized the classicism of the Augustan school.
3. was the greatest English prose writer of his century.
4. invented the novel.

A significant difference between Bach and Handel as composers was:
1. one was Baroque, the other Classical.
2. Bach composed only instrumental music while Handel wrote for voices.
3. they lived in different centuries.
4. Bach wrote professionally for a provincial church while Handel sought to please more secular audiences.

Explain the significance of the following terms:
1. Cartesianism 2. Écrasez-l'infâme
3. philosophes
4. "laissez-faire"
5. tabula rasa
6. Palladian revival
7. Leyden Jar
8. Augustans
9. general will
1. This philosopher wrote "I think, therefore I am".
2. The principle of the Novum Organum, or new instrument was developed by this man.
3. The first man to observe and describe the circulation of blood.
4. Wrote Essay on Man.
5. Wrote Outline of the Progress of the Human Mind.
6. Wrote Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
7. The author who created "Nathan the Wise", a hero modeled after the real-life Jewish philosopher Moses Mendelssohn.
8. His On Crime and Punishments taught that criminals should be punished only as a means of deterring other crimes.
9. He discovered the Law of the Conservation of Mass.
10. He developed the classification system for plants and animals which divided them into classes, genera, and species, etc.
11. Wrote Tartuffe, a play which satirized the "religious hypocrisy" he despised.
12. His paintings are a prime example of the Rococo style.
13. Wrote the classic English novel Tom Jones.
14. Credited with the invention of opera as a musical form.
15. This famous musician composed The Magic Flute.


W.W. Norton
REVIEW: World Civilizations
Page created by Thomas Pearcy, Ph.D and Mary Dickson.
We welcome your comments. Please contact Steve Hoge, Editor.
Last revised July 5, 1997
Copyright (c) 1997. W. W. Norton Publishing. All Rights Reserved