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World History Timeline
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Dates are B.C.E. unless noted * mya=million years ago
4.4 myaEarliest evidence of pre-human hominid species
4-2 myaHominid species-(australopithecus afarensis) in Ethiopia
1.8 mya Nutcracker Man discovered in Tanzania by Mary Leakey
1.8 mya Homo habilis or tool-making man
1.7 mya Homo erectus or erect man
~1 mya Homo erectus begins to migrate to Europe and Asia
100,000-40,000Neanderthal Man, in Africa and Europe
100,000+Homo sapiens, or wise man
10,000-6,000 Shift from Hunter Gatherer to food producer in some areas (West Asia initially, Egypt by 6,000)
c.5000-3000Yangshao culture in China
c.5000Mangoes cultivated in SE Asia
5000Domestication of corn in Mexico
c.3750First evidence of cotton weaving. Mohenjo-Daro, India.
c.3500-2500Longshan culture in China
c.3400First evidence of wheel-made pottery. Sumeria.
c.3200-1600Indus Valley civilization
c.3200-2340Cities in Mesopotamia
c.3200Wheeled transport develops in Mesopotamia.
c.3200Lunar calendar in Mesopotamia
c.3200Cuneiform in Sumeria.
3200 Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt
3100 Egyptian hieroglyphic writing
3000 Egyptians develop weaving from plant fibers (flax)
c.3000-2000Anthropomorphic religion in Mesopotamia
3000Silk manufacturing. China.
2770-2200Old Kingdom in Egypt
2650 Construction of first pyramid in Egypt, first monumental columnar forms
2500-1500Indus Civilization in India
~2500 Basic forms for furniture, wind instruments in Egypt
2334-c.2200Akkadian Empire
c. 2200-1750Hsia (Xia) Dynasty in China
2050-1786Middle Kingdom in Egypt
~2000 Terra-cotta pottery in Egypt
~2000 Solar Calendar in Egypt
c.2000Minoan worship of the Mother Goddess
c.2000Extensive commerce between Egypt and Crete
c.2000-1500Height of Minoan Civilization
c.2000-1800Mathematical advances in Old Babylonia
c.2000-1600Old Babylonian Empire
c.2000Horse introduced to W. Asia
c.2000"Personal" religion develops in Mesopotamia
2000Potatoes cultivated in Andes
c.1900Epic of Gilgamesh in Mesopotamia.
1800Egyptian belief in personal immortality
c.1790Code of Hammurabi
c.1750-1100Shang Dynasty in China
c.1700-1500Evidence of ideographic script in China
c.1600-1200Mycenaean civilization on mainland Greece
c.1600-1200Hittite Empire in Asia Minor (Anatolia)
c.1600Invention of alphabet (consonants only). Syria
~1580-1090 Temple building in Egypt
1560-1087New Kingdom in Egypt
c.1550Kassites overthrow Babylonians
c.1523-1027Shang dynasty and invention of writing
c.1500-300C.E.Olmec civilization in Central America
c.1500-500Arrival of the Aryans and development of Vedic society (India)
1500Lima Beans Cultivated in Peru
c.1500-800Dark Ages of Greek history
c.1500-1400Mycenaean dominance on Crete
c.1400Destruction of Knossos and end of Minoan Civilization
c.1400Development of alphabet by Phoenicians
~1375Akhenaton introduces monotheism in Egypt
~1375 Naturalistic art in Egypt
~1300 Transparent glass invented in Egypt
~1300 Use of Papyrus, pen, and ink for writing in Egypt
~1300-1100 Increasing use of iron in Western Asia
c.1250Trojan War
c.1250Moses unites Hebrews in worship of Yahweh
c.1200-1100Collapse of Mycenaean civilization in Greece
c.1200sMoses leads Hebrews from Egypt to Palestine
c.1200-1025Hebrew occupation of Canaan
c.1200-800Vedas in India
c.1100-250Zhou (Chou) Dynasty in China
c.1100-771Western Zhou (Chou) Dynasty in China
c.1025-933Unified Hebrew monarchy, Saul, David, and Solomon
c.1000Rise of caste system in India
933-722Kingdom of Israel
933-586Kingdom of Judah
c.800-600Upanishads in India
c.800Beginning of city-states in Greece
771-c.250Eastern Zhou (Chou)
c.753Rome founded
c.750-612Height of Assyrian Empire
c.750-600Concentration of landed wealth in Greece
c.750-600Greek overseas expansion
c.750-550Hebrew prophetic revolution
c.750-400Astronomical observation and record-keeping by New Babylonians
c.750The Iliad and The Odyssey
c.700Earliest Greek settlement in Egypt's Nile delta
c.650Shift from cavalry to infantry in Greece
c.650-500Doric architectural style
c.625Zoroaster formulates religion in Persia
612-539New Babylonian Empire
c.600Invention of coinage by Lydians
c.600Thales of Miletus
c.600Deuteronomic code
594Reforms of Solon in Athens
586Nebuchadnezzar conquers Jerusalem
c.563-483Life of Gautama, the Buddha
c.540-468Life of Mahavira, founder of Jainism in India
539Conquest of Babylon by Persians
525Cambyses, the Persian ruler, conquers Egypt
525Cambyses, the Persian ruler, conquers Egypt
c.513Persian conquest of northwestern India and Indus Valley
508Reforms of Cleisthenes in Athens
c.500-400Ionic architectural style
c.500Establishment of Roman Republic
c.500Orphic and Eleusinian mystery cults
c.500Crop cultivation in rows in China
c.500Iron plow in China
c.500Royal Road of Persians
490-479Greco-Persian War
490-479Greco-Persian War
487-429Perfection of Athenian democracy
478-404Delian League
c.460The Parthenon
c.450Hebrew Song of Songs
c.450Law of the Twelve Tables, Rome
c.450-400The Sophists
431-404Peloponnesian War
c.400-300Corinthian style architecture
c.400 B.C.E.-70C.E.Hebrew prophetic revolution
c.400Book of Job
c.400Coinage in China
c.400Trace harness in China
c.400Zhuangzi (Chuang-tzu)
c.400-200Mahabharata and Ramayana reach final form in India
338Macedonian conquest of Greece
334-323Conquests of Alexander the Great
323Death of Alexander, division of his empire
c.322-183Maurya dynasty in India
c.320-250Zeno the Stoic
c.300-700C.E.Teotihuacán culture in Mexico
300-237Xunzi (Hsün-tzu)
c.300-100Hellenistic international trade
c.300Wrought iron in China
c.300Emergence of Mithraism
c.273-232Reign of Emporer Ashoka in India
264-146Punic Wars between Rome and Carthage
c.261Ashoka conquers Kalinga, leading to spread of Buddhism in India
c.250-208Han Fei-tzu and Li Ssu--development of Legalism in China
c.250-100Growth of slavery, decline of small farmer in Rome
c.250-50Oriental mystery cults in Rome
221-206Unification of China under Qin (Ch'in) Dynasty
221-206Destruction of Confucian literature under Legalist regime
221-206Standardization of weights and measures, coinage, writing system under Legalist regime
206B.C.E.-220C.E.Han Dynasty in China
c.200Use of the seed drill in China
c.200The Skeptics
c.200Use of iron in Sub-saharan Africa
c.183-145Greek Invasion of India
c.183-145Greek Invasion of India
c.179-104Dong Zhongsho (Tung Chung-shu)
146Destruction of Carthage by Rome
146Destruction of Carthage by Rome
c.146-60Introduction of Greek philosophy to Rome
c. 145-86Sima Qian (Ssu-ma Ch'ien)
c.141-87Emporer Han Wudi (Wu Ti) in China
c.140First Chinese ambassadors to India
133-121Reforms of the Gracchi brothers in Rome
111Chinese expansion to S. China Sea and Vietnam
c. 100Beginning of Japanese state
c. 100Invention of the Rudder in China
47Fire destroys the great library at Alexandria
46-44Dictatorship of Caesar in Rome
27B.C.E.-14C.E.Principate of Augustus Caesar in Rome

c.300-700C.E.Teotihuacán culture in Mexico
206 B.C.E.-220 C.E. Han Dynasty in China
27B.C.E.-14C.E.Principate of Augustus Caesar in Rome
c.0-100Shaka and Kushan invasions in northern India
c.25-300Kushan rule in northwestern India
61.Treaty of Samos between Rome and Kush
c.78Kushan emporer Kanishka promotes Buddhism in India
C.80The Colosseum
96-180The "Good Emporers" in Rome
c.120The Pantheon
c.120-250Height of Roman portrait statuary
121-180Marcus Aurelius
c.200-900Expansion of Bantu speakers in Africa
c.200-300Creation of the Yamato state in Japan
200Completion of Roman jurisprudence by great jurists
c.200Camels first used for trans-Saharan transport
c.200Porcelain in China
220-589Buddhism reaches China
221-280Three Kingdoms Era
235-284Civil war in the Roman empire
c.250Kingdom of Axum (Ethiopia) controls Red Sea trade
c.251-356Anthony of Egypt reputed father of hermit monasticism
c.300-1500.Mayan civilization in Central America
c.300-800Classical age of Hindu culture in India
c.300-500Barbarian invasions of China
306-337Constantine I
311Beginning of toleration of Christians in Roman Empire
320-467Gupta dynasty in India
c.340Pachomius draws up code of monastic behavior in Luxor, Egypt
354-430St. Augustine
379-395Theodosius I
c.380-450Kalidasa, India's greatest poet
380Christianity becomes the official Roman religion
c.405Adoption of Chinese writing in Japan
410Visigoths sack Rome
c.450Rise of Ghana in West Africa
476Deposition of last western Roman emporer
493-526Theodoric the Ostrogoth king of Italy
c.500-700Decline of towns and trade in the west
500Manufacture of glass and magnetic compass in China
c.520Benedictine monastic rule
532-537Byzantine church of Hagia Sophia
c.550-1250Great stone temple architecture in India
c.550Corpus of Roman law
c.552Spread of Buddhism in Japan
589-618Sui dynasty in China
590-604Pope Gregory I
c.600-1500Extensive slave trade from sub-Saharan Africa to Mediterranean
c.600-1000Sanskrit drama in India
c.600-1000Tiahuanaco culture in South America
c.600Manufacture of bark paper in Mayan civilzation
604Shotoku's Seventeen Article Constitution in Japan
c.606-648King Harsha in India
610-641Byzantine Emperor Heraclius
610Muhammad preaches reform, monotheism in Arabia
618-907Tang Dynasty in China, economic, political and artistic brilliance
622Muhammad's Hijrah
630Muhammad enters Mecca in triumph
632-661Caliphate emerges as an institution
636-651Muslims conquer Syria, Persia and Egypt
641Muslim conquest of Egypt
645Taika Reform Edict
651Publication of the Qu'ran, sacred book of Islam
c.656Split in Islam between Shiites and Sunnites
661-750The Umayyads dynasty (Islamic kingdom)
661Umayyads move Muslim capital from Medina to Damascus
c.700-1300Height of Islamic commerce and industry
c.700-1050Predominantly agrarian economy in the West
710Nara establised as Japan's first capitol (and first city)
711Muslims conquer Spain
c.715-754Missionary work of St. Boniface in Germany
717Muslims unsuccessfully attack Constantinople
726-843Iconoclastic controversy in Byzantine Empire
732Charles Martel defeats Muslims at Poitiers
735Death of the Venerable Bede
750-1258The Abbasid dynasty (Islamic dynasty)
c.750Book of Kells (Ireland)
751Battle at Talas River ends Islamic penetration of Central Asia
751Pepin the Short annointed king of the Franks
762Abbasids move Muslim capital from Damascus to Baghdad
794-1185Heian era and literary flowering in Japan
c.800-1000Height of Byzantine commerce and industry
c.800-850Carolingian Renaissance
800Charlemagne crowned emperor
c.850-911Carolingian Empire distintegrates
871-899Alfred the Great of England
c.880-911High point of Viking raids in Europe
c.900Woodblock printing of books in China, Japan, and Korea
907-960The Era of the Five Dynasties in China--warfare
910Foundation of Cluny
936-973Otto the Great of Germany
945Buyids occupy Baghdad
c.950Foundation of the Kievan state
c.950Death of Al-Farabi
960-1279Song (Sung) dynasty in China
c.988Byzantine conversion of Russia to Christianity
1000-1500Muslim invasions of India
c.1000-1500Consolidation of states in Africa
c.1000-1500Inca civilization in South America
c.1000-1200Romanesque style in architecture and art
1000-1200Development of neo-Confucianism
1021-1086Wang An-shih, political reformer and author in China
c.1025-1100Destruction of Byzantine free peasantry
c.1050-1300Agricultural advance, revival of towns and trade in the West
1055Baghdad falls to the Seljuk Turks
1037Death of Avicenna
1046Beginning of Reform Papacy
1054Beginning of Schism between Roman and Eastern Orthodox Churches
1066Norman conquest of England
1071Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantines at Battle of Manzikert
1073-1085Pope Gregory VII
1077Penance of Henry IV at Canossa
1079-1142Peter Abelard
1090-1153St. Bernard of Clairvaux
1095-1099First Crusade
c.1095Song of Roland
c.1100-1897Kingdom of Benin
c.1100-1500Bantu, Arab, and Indian cultures blend in Swahili civilization along eastern coast
c.1100-1300Origins of universities in the West
c.1100-1220Troubadour poetry
1100-1135Henry I of England
1108-1137Louis VI of France
c.1115-1153Height of Cistercian monasticism
c.1120Rubaiyat of Umar Khayyam
1122Concordat of Worms ends investiture struggle
c.1140-1260Translation of Aristotle's works into Latin
1141-1279Height of landscape painting in China
c.1150-1500Gothic style in architecture and art
c.1150Explosive powder used in weapons in China
1152-1190Frederick I (Barbarossa) of Germany
1154-1189Henry II of England
c.1155-1157Peter Lombard's Sentences
c.1162-1227Genghis Khan
c.1165-1190Poetry of Chrétien de Troyes
c.1168-1253Robert Grosseteste
1180-1223Philip Augustus of France
c.1180Windmill invented
1185-1333Kamakura Shogunate and Japanese feudalism
1187Crusaders lose Jerusalem to Saladin
1187Crusaders lose Jerusalem to Saladin
1192Establishment of Shogunate in Japan
1192Destruction of Buddhism in India
1198-1216Pope Innocent III
1198Death of Averroës
c.1200Zen Buddhism in Japan
c.1200Innoculation for smallpox in China
1204Crusaders sack Constantinople
1204Death of Maimonides
1206-1526Turkish Sultanate at Delhi
1208-1213Albigensian Crusade
1210Founding of Franciscan Order
1212Spanish victory over Muslims at Las Navas de Tolosa
1212-1250Frederick II of Germany and Sicily
c.1214-1294Francis Bacon
1215Magna Carta
1215Fourth Latern Council
1216Founding of Dominican Order
c.1224Decline of the Kingdom of Ghana
1225-1274St. Thomas Aquinas
1226-1270Louis IX (St. Louis) of France
c.1235Development of Chinese drama
c.1250-1277Height of Scholasticism
c.1250Poetry of Sadi
1258Mongols destroy Baghdad and kill the last Abbasid Caliph
1270-1478Imperial revival in Ethiopia
c.1270Romance of the Rose
1272-1307Edward I of England
1274Mongols unsuccessful attempt to invade Japan
1279-1368Mongol (Yüan) dynasty in China
1281Mongols unsuccessful attempt to invade Japan
1285-1349William of Ockham
1285-1314Philip IV (the Fair) of France
c.1290Mechanical clock invented
1290-1320Sultanate of Delhi
1291Fall of last Christian outposts in the Holy Land
1291Fall of last Christian outposts in the Holy Land
1294-1303Pope Boniface VII
c.1300-1500Mali empire in middle Niger region
1300-1500Rise of the daimyo in Japan
c.1300-1327Period of Master Eckhart's activity
c.1300-1450European economic depression
c.1300Marco Polo travels in China
1305-1378Babylonian captivity of papacy
c.1305-1337Paintings of Giotto
c.1310Dante's Divine Comedy
1315Floods throughout western Europe
c.1320-1500Height of nominalism
c.1325Tenochtitlán (Mexico City) founded by Aztecs
c.1325Ibn Battuta, famous North African traveler, begins 29-year, 75,000 mile world tour
c.1330University of Tmbuktu
c.1330-1384John Wyclif
1337-1453Hundred Years War
1347-1350Black Death
c.1350-1450Height of Hanseatic League
c.1350-1450Political chaos in Germany
c.1350Boccaccio's Decameron
c.1370Persian poetry of Hafiz
1378-1417The Great Schism of the papacy
1381English peasant's revolt
c.1390Chaucer's Canterbury Tales
1397-1494Medici Bank
1398Sack of Delhi by Timur the Lame (Tamerlane)
1400-1441Paintings of Jan van Eyck
c.1408-1415Jon Hus preaches in Bohemia
1414-1417Council of Constance
1420-1434Hussite Revolt
c.1427Imitation of Christ
1429-1431Appearance of Joan of Arc
1431-1449Council of Basel, defeat of conciliarism
c.1450-1500Rise of princes in Germany
c.1450Printing with movable type
c.1453-1513Reassertion of royal power in France
1453Heavy artillery (cannons) helps Turks capture Constantinople and end Hundred Years War
1454-1485Peace among Northern Italian states
1455-1485War of the Roses in England
1462-1505Ivan III lays foundation for Russian Empire
1469Marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella
1485-1603Strong Tudor dynasty in England
c.1493-1582Expansion of Songhay
c.1500Founding of Sikh religious sect
1549-1551Introduction of Christianity to Japan
1582-1610Matteo Ricci in China
c.1591Decline of Songhay afer defeat by Moroccans

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Reference: World Civilizations
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