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1 Men Prone to Wonder: America Before 1600
2 The European Settlement of North America: The Atlantic Coast to 1660
3 Empires (1660-1702)
4 Benjamin Franklin's World: Colonial North America (1702-1763)
5 Toward Independence (1764-1783)
6 Inventing the American Republic: The States (1776-1790)
7 Inventing the American Republic: The Nation (1776-1788)
8 Establishing the New Nation (1789-1800)
9 The Fabric of Change (1800-1815)
10 A New Epoch (1815-1828)
11 Political Innovation in a Mechanical Age (1828-1840)
12 Worker Worlds in Antebellum America
13 The Age of Improvement: Religion and Reform (1825-1846)
14 National Expansion, Sectional Division (1839-1850)
15 A House Dividing (1851-1860)
16 Civil War (1861-1865)
17 Reconstruction (1865-1877)
18 The Rise of Big Business and the Triumph of Industry (1870-1900)
19 An Industrial Society (1870-1910)
20 Politics and the State (1876-1900)
21 A New Place in the World (1865-1914)
22 The Progressive Era (1900-1916)
23 The Great War (1914-1919)
24 A Conservative Interlude: The 1920s
25 The Great Depression and the New Deal (1929-1940)
26 Whirlpool of War (1932-1941)
27 Fighting for Freedom (1942-1945)
28 A Troubled Peace (1945-1953)
29 Eisenhower, Affluence, and Civil Rights (1954-1960)
30 Reform, Rage, and Vietnam (1960-1968)
31 Revival of Conservativism (1969-1980)
32 "The Cold War is Over" (1981-1992)
33 Innovations and Divisions in a Globalizing Society (1970-2000)
34 The Politics of Division (1993-2001)
35 At War Against Terror

Chapter 18: The Rise of Big Business and the Triumph of Industry (1870-1900)

Chapter Outline

  1. The United States in 1876
    1. Centennial Exhibition Celebrates Progress and Technology
    2. Economic Depression and Social Strife
  2. An Industrial Economy
    1. Agriculture and Industry
      1. Agricultural expansion
        1. production spurt
        2. new technologies
        3. falling prices
      2. Industrial expansion
        1. leading industries: machinery, iron, and steel
        2. reasons
        3. emergence of business cycles
    2. Railroads
      1. Wave of railroad construction
      2. New techology and managerial methods
      3. Economic and cultural impact
      4. Public regulation
      5. Railroad mergers
    3. Big Business
      1. The rise of big business
      2. Structural characteristics of big business
        1. distinct operating units
        2. hierarchical management with salaried executives
      3. Changes in business practice
        1. mass distribution
        2. mass production
      4. Paths to bigness
        1. vertical and horizontal integration
        2. pools, trusts, holding companies, and mergers
      5. Regulation
        1. by the states
        2. Sherman Anti-Trust Act
    4. Industry and Technology
      1. Emergence of science-based industries
      2. New technological systems
        1. railroads
        2. telegraph
        3. telephone
        4. electricity
      3. Sources of technological advance
        1. European scientists
        2. independent inventors
        3. corporate research labs
  3. The Center and the Periphery
    1. The Southern Economy
      1. Dependence on agriculture, particularly cotton
      2. Persistent poverty
    2. Development of the West
      1. The peopling of the trans-Mississippi West
        1. sources of migration
        2. desire to settle and farm
        3. challenge of farming: aridity
      2. Trend away from consolidation
        1. farming
        2. cattle ranching
      3. Extractive industries tied to global markets and outside capital
  4. Classes
    1. Changes in Class Structure
      1. Emergence of a national elite
      2. Rise of the new middle class
      3. Huge and growing working class
    2. Jobs and Incomes
      1. Divisions within the working class
        1. skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled
        2. men vs. women
      2. Workplace hazards
        1. physical dangers and disease
        2. job insecurity
      3. Impact of workplace technology
    3. Immigrants and Migrants
      1. Scope of immigration
      2. Sources: "new" vs. "old" immigrants
      3. Global phenomenon
      4. Immigrants a significant proportion of the working class
    4. Social Mobility
      1. The ideology
      2. The reality

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