Chapter Study Outline

  1. September 11, 2001
    1. The attacks
      1. Death tolls
      2. Trauma
        1. To New York City
        2. To the country
    2. The perpetrators: Osama bin Laden, Al Qaeda
      1. Bin Laden background
      2. Outlook and agenda
      3. Mode of operation
    3. Terrorism
      1. Instances in American past
      2. Explosions at U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania
    4. Post–September 11 atmosphere in nation
      1. Wave of fear
      2. Renewed passion for freedom
      3. Fresh attention to old questions
        1. America's global role
        2. Balance between liberty and security
        3. Breadth of American freedom
  2. The War on Terrorism
    1. Bush before September 11
      1. Domestic policy—campaign rhetoric of "compassionate conservatism"
      2. Staunch conservative agenda from outset of presidency
        1. Fiscal
          1. Record-size tax cut, geared toward the wealthy
          2. Revival of "supply-side" theory
        2. Environmental
      3. Jim Jeffords' defection from Republican Party; restoration of Democratic Senate majority
      4. Foreign policy—insistence on American freedom from international treaties, institutions
        1. Rejection of Kyoto Protocol on global warming
          1. Global warming problem
          2. Growing scientific confirmation of problem
          3. Contribution of United States to global warming
          4. Worldwide support for treaty
      5. Furious response around world
    2. "They hate freedom"
      1. Public mood following September 11
        1. Outpouring of patriotism, collective sympathy and resolve
        2. Renewal of trust in government
        3. Surge in popularity of Bush
      2. The Bush Doctrine
        1. "War on terrorism"
          1. Vagueness of enemy or scenario for victory
          2. Absence of line between terrorists and governments harboring them
          3. Absence of middle ground
      3. War in Afghanistan
        1. Lead-up: refusal of Taliban government to surrender bin Laden to United States
        2. American airstrikes, Northern Alliance ground combat
        3. Fall of Taliban government
        4. Fragility of new government
        5. Escape of bin Laden and supporters
        6. Characterization by Bush as only start of war on terrorism
        7. Longer-term outcomes
          1. Gradual reemergence of Taliban presence
          2. Ongoing U.S. troop presence
    3. Bush's identification of "axis of evil"
      1. Dramatic departures in American foreign policy
      2. Iraq, Iran, North Korea
      3. National Security Strategy document
        1. Definition of freedom
        2. Pledge to fight terrorists and tyrants around world
        3. Insistence on global military dominance
      4. Adoption of "preemptive" war doctrine
  3. An American Empire?
    1. World reaction: from post–September 11 sympathy to mounting alarm
      1. Breadth of criticism
      2. Themes of criticism
    2. Indicators of American imperial aspirations
      1. Colossal military expenditures
      2. Rehabilitation of "empire" in public discourse
    3. Confronting Iraq
      1. Pre-Bush administration
        1. Survival of Saddam Hussein regime following Gulf War of 1991
        2. Ongoing tensions with United Nations and United States in 1990s
      2. Bush administration's push toward war
        1. Pre–September 11
          1. Early advocates of "regime change"
          2. Military strategizing for ouster of Hussein
          3. Visions of warm reception from "liberated" Iraqis
        2. Post–September 11
          1. Adoption and announcement of "regime change" policy
          2. Arguments made in defense of "regime change" policy
          3. Credulity of American media
          4. Promotion, then dismissal, of intensified UN inspections for weapons of mass destruction in Iraq
          5. Secretary of State Colin Powell's presentation of "evidence" at UN
          6. Announcement of intention to go to war, regardless of UN position
    4. The Iraq War
      1. Mounting opposition to a "preemptive" war
        1. Sources
          1. Antiwar movements in United States and beyond
          2. Foreign policy "realists"
          3. Nations around world
        2. Themes
        3. UN refusal to approve
      2. The war—initial sense of triumph
        1. Rapid fall of Hussein regime
        2. American occupation
        3. Capture of Hussein
        4. Bush: "Mission Accomplished"
      3. Another Vietnam?
        1. Looting and chaos
        2. Gathering insurgency against occupation
        3. Wave of sectarian violence
        4. Elusiveness of viable government
        5. Emergence of Iraq as haven for terrorists
      4. The world and the war
        1. Extraordinary use of unilateral force outside Western Hemisphere
        2. Unprecedented occupation of Middle East nation
        3. Reaction to the war
          1. In America
          2. Around world
  4. The Aftermath of September 11 at Home
    1. Security and liberty
      1. Government measures
        1. USA Patriot Act
          1. Conferring of vast new powers on law enforcement agencies
          2. New crime category of "domestic terrorism"
        2. Mass roundups, indefinite detention of Middle Eastern foreigners
        3. Detention of suspected terrorists abroad; Guantanamo
        4. Authorization of secret military tribunals for noncitizens
        5. Authorization of indefinite detention of U.S. citizens deemed "enemy combatants"
        6. Warnings not to criticize administration policies
        7. Rescinding of 1970s-era restraints on police and surveillance activities
      2. The power of the president
        1. Disregard for legal and constitutional constraints
        2. Public reaction
          1. Acceptance of some contraction of liberties
          2. Concern over historical fragility of American rights
          3. Civil liberties
          4. Equality before the law
    2. The torture controversy
      1. Bush administration impatience with Geneva Convention, International Convention Against Torture
      2. Government measures
        1. Denial to "unlawful combatants" of Geneva protections
        2. Establishment of CIA jails in foreign countries
        3. "Rendition"
      3. Revelations of prisoner abuse in Afghanistan, Abu Ghraib, and Guantanamo
      4. Defense Appropriations Act—congressional ban on torture
        1. Enactment of
        2. Bush's grudging acceptance of
    3. The economy under Bush
    4. Economic trends
      1. Resumption of growth
      2. Continued declines in jobs, wages, benefits
        1. Magnitude and location of
        2. Social distribution of
      3. Widening of economic inequality
        1. Degree
        2. Causes
      4. Explosion of budget deficits
        1. Magnitude
          1. Federal level
          2. State level
        2. Causes
          1. Faltering economy
          2. Increased military spending
          3. 2001 tax cuts
        3. Impact: drastic cuts in social programs
        4. Bush response
          1. Support for low interest rates
          2. Further tax cuts
  5. The Winds of Change
    1. Election of 2004
      1. Candidacy of John Kerry
      2. Reelection campaign of George W. Bush
      3. Bush's narrow victory
      4. Causes and significance of outcome
    2. Bush's second term
      1. Inaugural vow to "end tyranny in the world"
      2. Steady erosion of Bush's standing
        1. Falling support for Iraq War
        2. Republican corruption scandals
          1. In White House
          2. In Congress
    3. Hurricane Katrina
      1. Arrival
        1. Destruction of levees
        2. Flooding of New Orleans
      2. Inept response by government
        1. Local level
        2. Federal level
          1. Federal Emergency Management Agency
          2. President Bush
      3. New Orleans disaster
        1. Mass abandonment of blacks, poor
        2. Death toll
        3. Physical damage
        4. Displacement
      4. Public response to disaster
        1. Relief efforts
          1. Private
          2. Other states
      5. Impact on oil prices
    4. Immigration debate
      1. Background
        1. Recent swelling of Hispanic immigration
        2. Spread of new immigrants throughout American heartland
        3. Blend of legal and undocumented immigrants
      2. Response to immigration
        1. History of public debate and government policy
        2. 2006 House of Representatives bill to suppress illegal immigration
        3. Mass demonstrations across country
      3. Islam, America, and the "Clash of Civilizations"
        1. Samuel Huntington's book and argument
          1. Fundamentally unhistorical
          2. Inaccurate homogenous view of all Islamic cultures
        2. Cultural ignorance and fear expressed by some Americans
    5. The Constitution and liberty
      1. Upholding of affirmative action
      2. Overturning of decision making homosexual acts a crime
    6. The Court and the president
      1. Reassertion of legal rights for prisoners in American custody
        1. Key cases
          1. Rasul v. Bush
          2. Hamdi v. Rumsfeld
          3. Hamdan v. Rumsfeld
        2. Significance
          1. Rebuff of presidential defiance of legal and constitutional constraints
          2. Reaffirmation of rule of law, separation of powers
    7. The midterm elections of 2006
      1. Bush's popularity plummets
      2. Democrats win both houses
    8. Economic downturn
      1. The housing bubble
        1. Speculation in the housing market
        2. Rapid rise in home values
        3. Easy credit policies—both public and private
        4. Rising consumer debt
        5. Collapse of the market
      2. The Great Recession
        1. Collapse of the housing market triggers financial crises
        2. Banks held too many bad home loans
        3. Homes no longer worth loan values
        4. This triggered a banking crisis
        5. In turn triggered a stock market collapse
        6. Worst economic crisis and downturn since the Great Depression
      3. "A conspiracy against the public"
        1. Public respect for big business greatly reduced
        2. Lehman Brothers; Bernie Madoff
        3. Goldman Sachs and Barclays
      4. The collapse of the market fundamentalism
        1. Crisis revealed the flaws of deregulation
        2. Destroyed the idea of self-regulation of big business
      5. Bush and the crisis
        1. Banks and other financial institutions "too big to fail"
        2. Government bailout
        3. Unemployment; revealed limits of American social safety net
  6. The Rise of Obama
    1. Background
      1. Son of a Kenyan immigrant
      2. Product of an interracial marriage
      3. Graduate of Columbia and Harvard Law
      4. Very much a product, success of, civil rights movement
    2. The 2008 campaign
      1. Main primary opponent, Hillary Clinton
      2. General election opponent, John McCain and Sarah Palin
      3. Obama's victory
      4. New Democratic Party coalition
      5. "Change" in political climate, or not?
    3. Obama's inauguration—first African-American president
    4. Obama in office
      1. Return of more active government
      2. "Stimulus package" designed to spur economic recovery
      3. Extension of unemployment benefits
      4. Health insurance debate and passage
      5. Events
        1. Instabilities around the world
        2. Ongoing debate over American freedom
    5. The continuing economic crisis
      1. Recession ended in mid-2009
      2. Unemployment still high
      3. Continued economic inequality
    6. Obama and the world
      1. End of Iraq War in 2011
      2. Increased troops in Afghanistan
      3. Did not end military tribunals
      4. Extended some provisions of USA Patriot Act
      5. Death of Osama Bin Laden
      6. Arab Spring
    7. The Republican resurgence
      1. Tea Party
      2. Republicans gain in midterm elections
      3. State-level politics becomes conservative voice
    8. The Occupy Movement
      1. Protests against depredations of Wall Street banks
    9. 2012 campaign
      1. Socio-cultural issues play major role
      2. Mitt Romney as opponent
      3. Funding changes
        1. Corporations contribute
        2. PAC spending unlimited
        3. Hundreds of millions raised from supporters
        4. $6 billion election
    10. 2012 election
  7. Learning from History: America in the Early Twenty-First Century
    1. Instabilities around the world
    2. Ongoing debate over meanings of American freedom