Chapter Study Outline

  1. "Globalization" in the Late Twentieth Century
    1. Conceptions of
    2. Emerging controversy over
  2. Post–Cold War World
    1. The crisis of communism and end of Cold War
      1. China
        1. Popular democracy movement
        2. Suppression of protest
      2. Eastern Europe
        1. Popular protest
        2. Soviet nonintervention
        3. Collapse of Communist regimes ("Velvet Revolution")
          1. Germany: removal of Berlin Wall; reunification
          2. Elsewhere
      3. Soviet Union
        1. Economic chaos
        2. National and ethnic tensions
        3. Attempted coup
        4. Dissolution
      4. Implications of Cold War's end
        1. Global prevalence of capitalism, "free market" model
        2. Prospects for spread of democracy
        3. Emergence of United States as uncontested superpower
    2. President George W. Bush and the "new world order"
      1. Uncertain meaning of "new world order"
      2. Invasion of Panama
        1. Purposes
        2. Outcome
        3. Controversy over
      3. The Gulf War
        1. Background: invasion of Kuwait by Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein
        2. Buildup to war
          1. Dispatch of U.S. troops to Gulf region
          2. Debate over prospective war with Iraq
          3. Forging by Bush of multinational coalition
          4. Securing of United Nations authorization
        3. The war: Operation Desert Storm
          1. Prompt U.S. victory; ouster of Iraq from Kuwait
          2. Minimum of American casualties
          3. High death toll for Iraqis
        4. Aftermath
          1. UN sanctions on Iraq
          2. Survival of Hussein regime
          3. Resentment in region over U.S. presence
          4. Surge in Bush's popularity
      4. Visions of America's role—competing doctrines
        1. General Colin Powell's vision
        2. Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney's vision
    3. The election of Clinton
      1. Growing disenchantment with Bush, Republicans
        1. Economic recession
        2. Remoteness of Bush on domestic issues
        3. Pat Buchanan's "cultural war"
      2. Democratic challenger: Bill Clinton
        1. Popular appeal; empathy for economic anxieties
        2. Blend of liberal and conservative approaches
      3. Independent challenger: Ross Perot
      4. Clinton victory
    4. Clinton in office
      1. Departures from Reagan-Bush approach
        1. Cabinet and judicial appointments
        2. Tax policies
        3. Spending plan for infrastructure and job training
      2. Continuities from Reagan-Bush approach
        1. Free trade doctrine
        2. North American Free Trade Agreement
      3. Health-care reform initiative
        1. Background
          1. Rising cost of health care
          2. Growing number of uninsured
          3. Limited coverage by Health Maintenance Organizations
        2. Clinton plan
          1. Role of Hillary Rodham Clinton
          2. Provisions
        3. Resistance to plan
          1. Sources
          2. Themes
        4. Outcome
          1. Defeat of plan
          2. Subsequent growth in ranks of uninsured
    5. The "Freedom Revolution"
      1. Background: public disenchantment with Clinton
      2. Republican challenge
        1. Leadership of Newt Gingrich
        2. Proposed "Contract With America"
          1. Shrinking of government
          2. Reduction in taxes
          3. Deregulation
          4. Overhaul of welfare
          5. Elimination of affirmative action
      3. Scope of electoral triumph
      4. Gingrich Republicans in power
        1. Implementation of "Contract With America"
        2. Standoff with Clinton; government shutdown
        3. Recoiling of public from Gingrich, "Contract With America"
    6. Clinton's political strategy—"triangulation"
      1. Strategy
        1. Repudiation of "big government"
        2. Co-optation of moderate Republican themes
        3. Rejection of extreme Republican themes
      2. Initiatives
        1. Telecommunications Act
        2. Abolition of federal welfare system
      3. Outcome
        1. Neutralization of Republican challenge
        2. Reelection victory over Bob Dole
        3. Affirmation of mainstream Republican premises
    7. Clinton and world affairs
      1. Agenda
        1. Resolve ongoing global conflicts
        2. Restore emphasis on human rights
      2. Mixed record
        1. Fruitful efforts in Northern Ireland, Haiti
        2. Fruitless efforts in Middle East
        3. Lack of effort in China, Rwanda
      3. The Balkan crisis
        1. Background
          1. Disintegration of Yugoslavia
          2. Outbreaks of ethnic conflict, "ethnic cleansing"
        2. U.S./NATO/UN response
          1. Air strikes
          2. Peacekeeping
          3. Kosovo war
      4. Role of human rights in global affairs
        1. Growth of
          1. Principle of intervention in internal affairs
          2. International institutions
          3. Expanding scope of human rights issues
        2. Uncertainty of
    8. A new economy—Clinton-era boom
      1. Indicators
        1. Low rates of unemployment, inflation
        2. Federal budget: from deficits to surplus
      2. The computer revolution
        1. Key features
          1. Microchip
          2. Variety of computer products
          3. Internet
        2. Areas of impact
          1. Private use
          2. Work place
          3. Global reach of American culture
        3. Varied perspectives on Internet
          1. Celebration of democratic promise
          2. Concern over inequalities of access
  3. Stock market boom and bust
    1. Frenzied, twenties-style boom
      1. "Dot coms"
      2. Nasdaq
    2. Bust
      1. Timing and scale
      2. Impact
    3. Corporate greed and fraud ("Enron syndrome")
      1. After the turn of the century, surfacing of
        1. Torrent of revelations
        2. Scope of misdeeds
        3. Corporate crime and punishment
      2. Deregulation as contributing factor
    4. Fruits of deregulation—rising inequality
      1. General economic improvement for Americans
      2. Widening gap between richest and poorest Americans
      3. Sources of working-class hardship
        1. Export of manufacturing jobs abroad
        2. Shift from high-paying to low-paying jobs
      4. Urban and rural dimensions of poverty
      5. The new American suburbs
        1. As self-contained economies
        2. Increasing heterogeneity of
        3. Persisting class divisions within
  4. Culture Wars
    1. Post–Cold War renewal of ethnic and religious divisions
      1. Around world
      2. In America
    2. Newest immigrant patterns
      1. Shift in geographic origins
      2. Record numbers
      3. Emergence of new ethnic communities
      4. Diversification of American heartland
      5. Range of occupations, social backgrounds
      6. Predominance of women
    3. The new diversity
      1. Latinos
        1. Emergence as largest immigrant group
        2. Variety of national origins
        3. Growing impact on American life
        4. Compression in low-wage sector
      2. Asian-Americans
        1. Growing presence
        2. Variety of national origins
        3. Socioeconomic status
          1. Overall progress
          2. Polarization between prosperous and poor
      3. Outdatedness of two-race ("black-white") dichotomy
      4. Rise of multiracial culture
      5. Prospect of growing diversity in new century
    4. African-Americans in the 1990s
      1. Progress
        1. Unprecedented strides
          1. Occupational
          2. Educational
        2. Sources of
          1. Decline in overt discrimination
          2. Affirmative action
          3. Economic boom
      2. Growing presence of African immigrants in black America
      3. Problems
        1. Continuing socioeconomic lag
          1. Employment
          2. Income
          3. Incidence of poverty
          4. Quality of schooling
          5. Other measures
        2. Persistence of segregation
          1. Housing
          2. School
        3. The role of the courts
          1. On relief from racial discrimination
          2. On school desegregation
        4. The spread of imprisonment
          1. Rise of "prison-industrial complex"
          2. Consequences for black America
        5. Blacks and death penalty
    5. Continuing rights revolution
      1. Emerging movement for rights of disabled; Americans With Disabilities Act
      2. Gay movement
        1. Rising focus on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
        2. Increasing presence in politics
        3. Growing public acceptance
      3. Native Americans in 2000
        1. Growth in Indian population, cultural pride
        2. Pursuit of restitution for past injustices
        3. Quasi-sovereign legal status of some tribes
        4. Prosperous Indian casinos
    6. Multiculturalism and cultural conservatism
      1. Key grievances
        1. "Identity politics," multiculturalism
        2. Influx of non-white immigrants
        3. Decline of "family values"
      2. Key manifestations
        1. Passage of California propositions
          1. Denial of public services to illegal immigrants
          2. Bars on bilingual education, affirmative action
        2. Denial of food stamps to noncitizens
        3. Publication of nativist works
        4. Creationist campaigns
        5. Assault on National Endowment for the Arts
        6. Defense of Marriage Act
        7. Other crusades
      3. Key voices
        1. Pat Robertson, Christian Coalition
        2. Pat Buchanan
    7. "Family values" in retreat
      1. Decline of "traditional" family
      2. Supreme Court affirmation of abortion rights: Casey v. Planned Parenthood of Pennsylvania
      3. Persistence of sexual revolution, feminism
    8. The antigovernment extreme
      1. Armed groups: Aryan Nation, Posse Comitatus, others
      2. Racist, anti-Semitic, antigovernment outlook
      3. Oklahoma City bombing
        1. Bloodshed
        2. Conviction, execution of Timothy McVeigh
        3. Impact on national consciousness
  5. Impeachment and Election of 2000
    1. The impeachment of Clinton
      1. Background
        1. Republican animosity toward Clinton
        2. Clinton's reckless behavior
      2. Allegations and investigations
        1. Whitewater
        2. Paula Jones
        3. Monica Lewinsky
      3. Kenneth Starr report
      4. House of Representatives impeachment vote
      5. Trial and acquittal in Senate
      6. Public aversion to Starr investigation, impeachment
    2. The disputed presidential election and the 2000 result
      1. Competing tickets
        1. Al Gore and Joseph Lieberman (Democrat)
        2. George W. Bush and Dick Cheney (Republican)
      2. Contested vote
        1. Popular majority for Gore
        2. Florida controversy
          1. Pivotal role in electoral outcome
          2. Disputed results
          3. State Supreme Court recount order
        3. U.S. Supreme Court's Bush v. Gore ruling
          1. Consequence: Bush victory
          2. Court's reasoning
      3. Noteworthy aspects
        1. Evenness of partisan division
        2. Lines of partisan division
          1. Geographical
          2. Urban/ rural
          3. Racial
          4. Gender
      4. A challenged democracy—troubling features
        1. Clash between popular and electoral outcomes
        2. Failings of voting technology
        3. Dominant role of big money contributors
        4. Low turnout
          1. Neglect of major issues
  6. Freedom and the New Century
    1. Balance sheet of human progress and tragedy in twentieth century
      1. Around world
      2. In "exceptional" America
    2. Varieties of freedom: at century's close
      1. Importance to Americans
      2. Distinctive meanings for Americans
      3. Ambiguous meanings for Americans