Chapter Study Outline

  1. The Freedom Movement—Civil Rights
    1. Rising tide of protest
      1. Sit-in campaigns
        1. Origins at Greensboro
        2. Spread across South
      2. Founding of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
      3. Freedom Rides
        1. Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
        2. Purpose
        3. Experience
        4. Outcome: desegregation of interstate bus travel
      4. Birmingham desegregation campaign
        1. Climax of region-wide demonstrations
        2. Leadership of Martin Luther King, Jr.
          1. "Letter from Birmingham Jail"
          2. Deployment of black school children
        3. Brutal response of "Bull" Connor; widespread revulsion over
        4. Impact on public opinion
          1. Growing sympathy for civil rights
          2. Presidential endorsement of movement
        5. Outcome: adoption of desegregation plan
    2. Themes and characteristics
      1. Growing involvement of college students, youth
      2. Vision of empowerment of ordinary blacks
      3. Commitment to nonviolent resistance
      4. Multiplicity of organizations, settings, and strategies
    3. Escalation of violent response
      1. Perpetrators
        1. Ordinary citizens
        2. Local and state officials
      2. Targets, episodes
        1. Firebombing, beatings of Freedom Riders
        2. Mob violence against desegregation of University of Mississippi
        3. Use of fire hoses, dogs, beatings against Birmingham protesters
        4. Assassination of Medgar Evers
        5. Deadly bombing of Birmingham church
    4. The March on Washington
      1. Magnitude
      2. As peak of nonviolent civil rights coalition
      3. Breadth of demands
      4. King's "I Have a Dream" speech
      5. Glimpses of movement's limitations and fault lines
        1. All-male roster of speakers
        2. Toning down of John Lewis's speech
  2. The Kennedy Years
    1. John F. Kennedy (JFK)
      1. Image of glamour, dynamism
      2. Inaugural themes
        1. ". . . new generation . . ."
        2. ". . . pay any price . . ."
        3. ". . . do for your country."
    2. Kennedy and the world
      1. New Cold War initiatives
        1. Peace Corps
        2. Space race; call for moon landing
        3. Alliance for Progress
      2. Bay of Pigs fiasco
      3. Berlin crisis; construction of Berlin Wall
      4. Cuban missile crisis
        1. Narrative
          1. Discovery of Soviet missiles in Cuba
          2. U.S. "quarantine" of Cuba
          3. Soviet withdrawal of missiles
        2. Significance and aftermath
          1. Imminence of nuclear war
          2. Sobering effect on JFK; American University speech
          3. Nuclear test ban treaty
    3. Kennedy and civil rights
      1. Initial disengagement
      2. Growing support
    4. Assassination of JFK
      1. Shock to nation
      2. Succession of Lyndon B. Johnson (LBJ) to presidency
  3. Lyndon Johnson's Presidency
    1. LBJ
      1. Personal background
      2. New Deal outlook
    2. Civil rights under LBJ
      1. The Civil Rights Act of 1964
        1. Support from LBJ
        2. Provisions
      2. Freedom Summer—voter registration in Mississippi
        1. Concerted civil rights initiative
        2. Influx of white college students
        3. Violent reception
          1. Bombings, beatings
          2. Murder of three activists
          3. Widespread revulsion over
      3. Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
        1. Crusade for representation at Democratic convention
        2. Fannie Lou Hamer
        3. Bitterness over Democrats' response
      4. Voting Rights Act
        1. Background
          1. Selma-to-Montgomery march
          2. LBJ address to Congress
        2. Provisions
      5. Twenty-Fourth Amendment
      6. Immigration reform: Hart-Cellar Act
        1. Links to civil rights reform
        2. Provisions
        3. Long-term consequences
    3. The 1964 election
      1. Right-wing views of Republican Barry Goldwater
      2. The conservative Sixties
        1. Young Americans for Freedom
          1. Sharon Statement
          2. Ideas
          3. Prominence in Barry Goldwater's 1964 campaign
        2. New conservative constituencies
          1. Expanding suburbs of southern California, Southwest
          2. Sunbelt entrepreneurs
          3. Deep South whites
        3. Racial overtones of conservative appeal
      3. LBJ's landslide reelection victory
      4. Seeds of conservative resurgence
      5. Immigration reform
    4. The Great Society
      1. Goals and philosophies
        1. Government action to promote general welfare
        2. Fulfillment and expansion of New Deal agenda
        3. Eradication of poverty
        4. Broadening of opportunity
        5. Lessening of inequality
        6. New conception of freedom
      2. Key measures
        1. Medicaid and Medicare
        2. Increased funding for education, urban development
        3. Increased funding for the arts, humanities, public broadcasting
      3. War on Poverty
        1. Outlook
          1. Influence of Michael Harrington's The Other America
          2. Emphasis on fostering skills, work habits
          3. De-emphasis on direct aid, structural remedies
          4. Input of poor into local programs
        2. Key measures
          1. Food stamps
          2. Office of Economic Opportunity initiatives
      4. Achievements
        1. Affirmation of social citizenship
        2. Substantial reduction of poverty
      5. Limitations
        1. Inadequate funding
        2. Long-term persistence of poverty, inequality
  4. The Changing Black Movement
    1. Emerging challenges to civil rights movement
      1. Persistence of racial inequality and injustice, North and South
      2. Diverging perspectives of whites and blacks on racial issues
      3. The ghetto uprisings
        1. Leading episodes: Harlem, Watts, Newark, Detroit
        2. Kerner Report
    2. Growing attention to economic issues
      1. King's "Bill of Rights for the Disadvantaged"
      2. A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin's Freedom Budget
      3. King's Chicago Freedom Movement
        1. Demands
        2. Mayor Richard J. Daley's political machine
        3. Ineffectiveness of mass protest tactics
        4. Radicalization of King
    3. Malcolm X
      1. Background
      2. Black Muslims
      3. Message
        1. Black self-determination
        2. Rejection of integration, nonviolence
      4. Assassination
      5. Legacy
        1. Lack of consistent ideology or coherent movement
        2. Enduring appeal of call for black self-reliance
    4. The rise of Black Power
      1. Introduction by Stokely Carmichael
      2. Imprecision and multiplicity of meanings
      3. Resonance among militant youth
      4. Place in wider spirit of self-assertion; "black is beautiful"
      5. Militant directions of SNCC, CORE
      6. Black Panther Party
        1. Emergence
        2. Demands and programs
        3. Demise
          1. Internal divisions
          2. Assault by government
  5. Vietnam and the New Left
    1. Arena: college campuses
    2. Following: white middle-class youth
    3. Spirit and ideology
      1. Departure from Old Left and New Deal liberal models
      2. Aspects of postwar society brought under challenge
        1. Personal alienation
        2. Social and political conformity
        3. Bureaucratization
        4. Corporate, Cold War outlook of American institutions
        5. Material acquisitiveness
        6. Social and economic inequality
        7. Gulfs between national values and realities
      3. Visions and inspirations
        1. "Authenticity"
        2. "Participatory democracy"
        3. Black freedom struggle
    4. Key moments
      1. Influential social critiques
        1. James Baldwin's The Fire Next Time
        2. Rachel Carson's Silent Spring
        3. Michael Harrington's The Other America
        4. Jane Jacobs's The Death and Life of Great American Cities
      2. The rise of Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
        1. Emergence and growth
        2. Port Huron Statement
      3. Free Speech movement at Berkeley
  6. America and Vietnam
    1. America's growing involvement (pre-LBJ)
      1. Outlook of policymakers
        1. Cold War assumptions
        2. Ignorance of Vietnamese history, culture
        3. Fear of "losing" Vietnam
      2. Key developments
        1. Defeat of French colonialism
        2. Fostering of Ngo Dinh Diem regime in South Vietnam
        3. Dispatch of counterinsurgency "advisers"
        4. Collapse of Diem regime; U.S.-backed coup
    2. Lyndon Johnson's war
      1. LBJ's initial outlook
      2. Escalation
        1. Gulf of Tonkin resolution
        2. Initiation of air strikes
        3. Introduction of ground troops
        4. Increasing magnitude of troop presence, bombing
      3. Brutality
        1. Bombing
        2. Chemical defoliation, napalm
        3. "Search and destroy" missions; "body counts"
      4. Lack of progress
        1. Resilience of Viet Cong and North Vietnamese forces
        2. Failings of South Vietnamese government
    3. The antiwar movement
      1. Emerging critiques
      2. Antiwar movement
        1. Early stirrings
          1. SDS rallies
          2. Themes
        2. Growth
          1. Draft resistance
          2. 1967 Washington rally
  7. Wider Currents of Dissent
    1. Counterculture
      1. Spread among youth
        1. College students
        2. Working class
      2. Spirit and vision
        1. Rejection of mainstream values
        2. Challenge to authority
        3. Community, creativity, pleasure over pursuit of wealth
        4. Cultural "liberation"
        5. "Sexual revolution"
      3. Symbols and manifestations
        1. Physical appearance, fashion
        2. "Sex, drugs, rock and roll"
        3. Be-Ins
          1. Timothy Leary; LSD
          2. "Turn on, tune in, drop out"
        4. New forms of radical action
          1. Underground newspapers
          2. Youth International Party ("Yippies")
        5. Communes
        6. Rock festivals; Woodstock
        7. Hair
    2. Reawakening of feminism
      1. Status of women at outset of 1960s
        1. Legal subordination
        2. Barriers to power, opportunity
      2. Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique
      3. Steps toward equal rights
        1. Equal Pay Act
        2. Civil Rights Act of 1964
        3. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
        4. Founding of National Organization for Women
          1. Range of demands
          2. Middle-class character
      4. "Women's liberation"
        1. Roots in civil rights and student movements
          1. Inspiration of movements' ideals
          2. Indignation against movements' inequalities
        2. Key initiatives
          1. Protests within SNCC, SDS
          2. "Consciousness-raising" groups
          3. Miss America beauty pageant protest
        3. Impact on public consciousness
          1. Expansion of idea of freedom
          2. Introduction of "sexism," "sexual politics," "the personal is political"
        4. Campaigns and demands
          1. Abortion rights; reproductive freedom
          2. Wide-ranging issues; Sisterhood is Powerful
      5. Growing acceptance of feminist ideas
    3. Rise of gay liberation
      1. Traditional oppression of gays
        1. Legal and cultural stigmatization
        2. Harassment of gay subcultures
      2. Stonewall revolt
      3. Emergence of militant movement
        1. "Out of the closet"
        2. Gay pride marches
    4. Latino activism
      1. Chicano pride movement
      2. United Farm Workers
        1. Cesar Chavez
        2. Blend of civil rights and labor struggles
        3. Grape strike, boycott
      3. Young Lords Organization (New York)
      4. Feminist current
    5. Red Power—Indian militancy
      1. Background: shifting Indian policies of postwar administrations
      2. Demands
        1. Material aid
        2. Self-determination
      3. Initiatives
        1. Founding of American Indian Movement
        2. Occupation of Alcatraz; Red Power movement
      4. Impact
    6. Silent Spring—new environmentalism
      1. Themes
        1. Critique of prevailing notions of progress, social welfare
        2. Activist, youth-oriented style
        3. Language of citizen empowerment
      2. Initiatives
        1. Rachel Carson's Silent Spring
        2. Campaign to ban DDT
        3. Expanding range of causes, organizations
      3. Progress
        1. Bipartisan appeal
        2. Clean Air and Clean Water Acts
        3. Endangered Species Act
        4. Inauguration of Earth Day
    7. Consumer activism
      1. Ralph Nader
        1. Unsafe at Any Speed
        2. Subsequent investigations
      2. Spread of consumer protection laws, regulations
  8. The Rights Revolution and the Supreme Court
    1. Warren Court
    2. Reaffirmation of civil liberties
      1. Curtailing of McCarthy persecution
      2. Intertwining of civil liberties and civil rights
        1. NAACP v. Alabama
        2. New York Times v. Sullivan
        3. Loving v. Virginia
        4. Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co.
      3. Imposition of Bill of Rights protections on states
        1. Bars on illegal search and seizure, cruel and unusual punishment
        2. Right of defendant to speedy trial, legal representation
        3. Miranda v. Arizona
    3. Political reapportionment: Baker v. Carr
    4. Reinforcement of separation of church and state
    5. Establishment of right to privacy
      1. Griswold v. Connecticut
      2. Roe v. Wade
        1. Implications for women's rights
        2. Source of ongoing controversy
  9. 1968: A Year of Turmoil
    1. Momentous events around nation
      1. Tet offensive; repercussions at home
      2. Eugene McCarthy's challenge to LBJ for nomination
        1. New Hampshire primary
        2. Withdrawal of LBJ
      3. Assassination of King; subsequent urban unrest
      4. Student revolt at Columbia University
      5. Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy
      6. Antiwar protests, police riot at Chicago Democratic convention
    2. The global 1968
      1. A year of worldwide upheaval
      2. Antiwar demonstrations in many world capitals
      3. Worker-student uprising in France
      4. Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia
      5. Killing of student protesters at Mexico City Olympics
      6. Women's rights movement advanced in many countries
    3. Nixon's comeback
      1. Stages
        1. Attainment of Republican nomination
        2. Narrow election victory over Hubert Humphrey
        3. Independent campaign of George Wallace
      2. Sources
        1. Conservative backlash
        2. Resonance of appeals to "silent majority," "law and order"