Chapter Study Outline

  1. Fighting World War II (WWII)
    1. Prewar trends in U.S. foreign policy
      1. Recognition of Soviet Union
      2. Good Neighbor Policy toward Latin America
    2. The road to war
      1. Japanese invasions of Manchuria, China
      2. Adolf Hitler's Germany
        1. Nazism
        2. Rearmament
        3. Annexation of Austria, Czechoslovakia
        4. Persecution of Jews
        5. Policy of appeasement toward
          1. Adoption by Britain, France, United States
          2. Munich conference; "peace in our time"
      3. Benito Mussolini's Italy
        1. Fascism
        2. Invasion of Ethiopia
      4. Francisco Franco's Spain
        1. Spanish Civil War
        2. Overthrow of democracy; establishment of fascist regime
        3. Support from Hitler
    3. American isolationism; reluctance to confront overseas aggression
      1. Sources
        1. Pro-Nazi sentiment
        2. Business ties to Japan, Germany
        3. Memory of World War I
        4. Pacifism
        5. Ethnic allegiances
      2. Manifestations
        1. Neutrality Acts
        2. Evenhanded arms embargo on Spanish belligerents
    4. War in Europe—outbreak of WWII
      1. Hitler-Stalin nonaggression pact
      2. German invasion of Poland
      3. British and French declarations of war on Germany
      4. German conquests across Europe, North Africa
      5. Formation of German-Italian-Japanese Axis
      6. Battle of Britain
    5. America's shifting response
      1. Persisting popular ambivalence
      2. Steps toward involvement
        1. Arms sale to Britain
        2. Military rearmament
      3. Reelection of Franklin Roosevelt (FDR)
        1. Unprecedented quest for third term
        2. Victory over Wendell Willkie
      4. Toward intervention
        1. Lend-Lease Act
        2. Interventionist mobilization efforts
    6. Pearl Harbor; U.S. entry into war
    7. War in the Pacific
      1. Early setbacks for Allies
        1. Japanese conquests
        2. Bataan "death march"
      2. Turning of the tide
        1. Battles of Coral Sea, Midway
        2. Island campaigns
    8. War in Europe
      1. Allied advances
        1. North Africa
        2. The Atlantic
        3. Italy
        4. D-Day
      2. Eastern front
        1. German invasion of Russia
        2. Siege of Stalingrad
        3. German surrender
        4. Magnitude of bloodshed
      3. The Holocaust
  2. Home Front
    1. Government mobilization of economy
      1. Wartime federal agencies
      2. Areas of impact
        1. Allocation of labor
        2. Types and labels of production
        3. Wages, prices, rents
        4. Public revenue
        5. Employment rate
    2. Business and the war
      1. New relationship with government
        1. Prominence of business leaders in federal bureaucracy
        2. Federal funding for large corporations
      2. Achievements of wartime manufacturing
        1. Scale of production
        2. Scientific advances
        3. Restoration of public esteem for business
      3. Geography of manufacturing boom
        1. Revival of old industrial centers
        2. Emergence of new industrial centers
          1. West
          2. South
        3. Centrality of military-related production
    3. Organized labor in wartime
      1. Government-business-labor collaboration
        1. Terms and impact
          1. Surge in union membership
          2. Spread of union recognition
          3. No-strike pledge
          4. Acceptance of employer "prerogatives," "fair profit"
        2. Junior position of labor
      2. Rolling back of New Deal programs
      3. Rise of labor walkouts
    4. Fighting for the Four Freedoms
      1. "Freedom" as ideological focus of wartime mobilization
      2. Content and implications
        1. Freedoms of speech and religion
        2. Freedoms from fear and want
      3. Points of controversy
        1. "Freedom from want"
        2. Office of War Information (OWI)
          1. New Deal liberalism of
          2. Conservative curtailment of
      4. Freedom as "free enterprise," material consumption (the "fifth freedom")
    5. Women at war
      1. Entry into traditionally "male" jobs
        1. Industry
        2. Other professions
      2. "Rosie the Riveter"
      3. Steps toward workplace equality, entitlements
      4. Experience of wartime labor; "taste of freedom"
      5. Postwar reversals
  3. Visions of Postwar Freedom
    1. Alternative outlooks
      1. Conservative: Henry Luce's American Century
        1. Free enterprise, material abundance
        2. America as world's dominant power
      2. New Deal liberal: Henry Wallace's "Price of Free World Victory"
        1. "Century of the common man"
        2. International cooperation
        3. Global New Deal
      3. Shared conception of America as world model
    2. The Economic Bill of Rights
      1. National Resources Planning Board (NRPB); wartime blueprints
        1. Goals and principles
          1. Economic security, full employment
          2. Expanded welfare state
          3. Mass consumption
          4. Keynesian emphasis on government spending
        2. Strongholds of support
        3. Congressional opposition
      2. FDR's Economic Bill of Rights
        1. Goals and principles
        2. Failure to pass in Congress
      3. Servicemen's Readjustment Act (GI Bill of Rights)
        1. Provisions
        2. Impact and significance
      4. Full Employment Bill
        1. Goals and principles
        2. Passage of watered-down version
    3. Renewal of economic conservatism: Friedrich A. Hayek's The Road to Serfdom
      1. Themes
        1. Economic planning as threat to liberty
        2. Superior effectiveness of free market
        3. Critiques of absolute laissez-faire dogma, social hierarchy, authoritarianism
      2. Basis for modern conservatism
  4. The American Dilemma—Race and Ethnicity
    1. Discrediting of ethnic and racial inequality, intolerance
    2. Broad assimilation of ethnic outsiders
      1. Diversity of army, industrial work force
      2. Shift from forced Americanization (WWI) to patriotic assimilation (WWII)
    3. Promotion of pluralism, group equality
      1. Government
        1. FDR
        2. OWI; other government agencies
      2. Scholars
        1. Ruth Benedict's Races and Racism
        2. Ashley Montagu's Man's Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallacy of Race
      3. Hollywood
    4. Ongoing barriers to assimilation
      1. Anti-Semitism
      2. Racism
    5. Mexican-Americans
      1. Bracero program
        1. Purposes
        2. Promise and reality
      2. New employment opportunities
      3. Emergence of Chicano culture
      4. Intolerance and discrimination
        1. "Zoot suit" riots
        2. Discrimination
      5. Mexican-American response
        1. Heightened civil rights consciousness
        2. Challenges to work place discrimination
    6. American Indians during the war
      1. Participation in military, war industry
      2. Exposure to urban life
      3. Marginality of reservations
    7. Asian-Americans in wartime
      1. Chinese-Americans
        1. Easing of traditional stereotypes
        2. Participation in military, war industry
      2. Japanese-Americans
        1. Dehumanizing portrayals
        2. Internment policy
          1. FDR's Executive Order 9066
          2. Expulsion to internment camps
          3. Negation of civil liberties
          4. Dearth of public protest
          5. Supreme Court affirmation: Korematsu v. United States
          6. Japanese-American response
          7. Eventual apology
    8. Blacks and the war
      1. On the home front
        1. Accelerated migration to industrial heartland
        2. Hostile reception; Detroit race riot; "hate strike"
        3. Persistence of lynching
      2. Blacks in military service
        1. Scale of service
        2. Racial practices
          1. Discrimination
          2. Abuse
      3. Birth of civil rights movement
        1. March on Washington initiative
          1. A. Philip Randolph
          2. Demands
          3. FDR's Executive Order 8802; establishment of Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC)
        2. Performance and impact of FEPC
        3. Growth of NAACP
        4. Congress of Racial Equality sit-ins
        5. Organized labor
        6. "Double-V" campaign
    9. Broadening opposition to racial inequality
      1. Black-Jewish collaboration
      2. Organized labor; CIO
      3. Growing dilemma for white southern moderates
      4. In government
        1. Federal agencies
        2. Supreme Court
        3. Armed forces
      5. Landmark publications
        1. What the Negro Wants
        2. Wendell Willkie's One World
        3. Gunnar Myrdal's An American Dilemma
  5. The End of the War
    1. Winding down of war
      1. In Europe
        1. Battle of the Bulge
        2. Allied invasion of Germany
        3. Fall of Hitler; V-E Day
      2. In the Pacific: advance of U.S. forces toward Japan
    2. Changing of guard in Washington
      1. Replacement of Wallace by Harry S. Truman as FDR's running mate
      2. FDR reelection victory over Thomas E. Dewey
      3. Death of FDR; Truman succession to presidency
    3. The atomic bomb—"The most terrible weapon"
      1. Development
        1. Albert Einstein's theory of relativity
        2. Manhattan Project
        3. Testing in New Mexico
      2. Use on Hiroshima, Nagasaki
        1. Devastating impact
          1. Immediate
          2. Long-term
        2. Surrender of Japan
      3. Lasting controversy over use
        1. Justifications
        2. Criticism
      4. Context for decision to use
        1. WWII practice of targeting civilian populations
        2. Dehumanization of Japanese in wartime propaganda
    4. Planning the postwar world
      1. Summit meetings at Tehran, Yalta, Potsdam
      2. Emerging points of tension among Allies
        1. Timing of Allied invasion of France
        2. Soviet intentions in eastern Europe
        3. Prospects for dissolution of British empire
    5. New economic order: Bretton Woods conference
      1. Initiatives
        1. Eclipse of British pound by dollar in global trade
        2. Linking of dollar's value to price of gold
        3. Creation of World Bank, International Monetary Fund
      2. Significance for postwar capitalist economic system
        1. Trend toward removal of barriers to free trade
        2. Recognition of United States as world's financial leader
    6. The United Nations (UN)
      1. Founding
        1. Planning conference at Dumbarton Oaks
        2. Adoption of United Nations Charter at San Francisco
        3. Endorsement of United Nations Charter by U.S. Senate
      2. Structure and mission