Chapter Study Outline

  1. Second industrial revolution
    1. Astounding pace and magnitude
    2. Emergence of factory as foremost realm of industrial production
    3. Emergence of wage labor as prevalent source of livelihood
    4. Emergence of city as chief setting for manufacture
      1. Leading industrial cities
        1. New York
        2. Chicago
        3. Pittsburgh
      2. Single-industry cities
    5. Railroads and the national market
      1. Eastern markets for western goods (agricultural, extractive)
      2. Western markets for eastern goods (manufactured)
      3. Central role of railroad
      4. National brands, chains, mail-order firms
    6. The spirit of innovation—technology
      1. Leading breakthroughs
      2. Thomas A. Edison's research laboratories
    7. Competition and consolidation—wealth and power
      1. Volatility of marketplace
      2. Downward pressure on prices; Great Depression of 1873–1897
      3. Ruthless competition among businesses
      4. Corporate initiatives to stabilize marketplace
        1. Pools
        2. Trusts
        3. Mergers
    8. Industrial giants
      1. Vast accumulations of wealth and power
      2. Leading business figures
        1. Thomas A. Scott (railroad)
          1. Size and scope of Pennsylvania Railroad
          2. Prototype of modern business organization
        2. Andrew Carnegie (steel)
          1. Personal rise
          2. Vertical integration
          3. Blend of philanthropy and dictatorial management
        3. John D. Rockefeller (oil)
          1. Cutthroat competition
          2. Horizontal integration
          3. Blend of philanthropy and dictatorial management
      3. Popular perceptions of
        1. Favorable; "captains of industry"
        2. Unfavorable; "robber barons"
    9. Workers' freedom in an industrial age
      1. Advantages for skilled labor elite
        1. High wages
        2. Areas of control
          1. Process of production
          2. Pace of production
          3. Training of apprentices
      2. Hardships for growing ranks of semiskilled workers
        1. Economic insecurity
          1. Unreliability of employment and wage rates
          2. Lack of pensions
          3. Lack of compensation for injury or unemployment
        2. Working conditions
          1. Length of workday
          2. Dangers of workplace
        3. Odds against collective action
      3. Breadth and depth of poverty
    10. Sunshine and shadow—increasing wealth and poverty
      1. New urban middle-class neighborhoods
      2. Exclusive world of the rich
        1. Home and neighborhood
        2. Resorts, social clubs, schools
        3. "Conspicuous consumption" (Thorstein Veblen)
        4. 1897 Waldorf-Astoria costume ball
      3. Contrasts of wealth and poverty
        1. Matthew Smith's Sunshine and Shadow
        2. Jacob Riis's How the Other Half Lives
  2. Transformation of the West
    1. A diverse region
      1. Variety of regions within West
      2. Variant on global patterns of political and economic incorporation
        1. Displacement of indigenous peoples
        2. Promotion of business development
        3. Promotion of population settlement
        4. Vital role of government
    2. Farming on the Middle Border
      1. Spread of land under cultivation
      2. Pace and diversity of settlement
      3. Wheat and corn production on Middle Border
      4. Hardships of Great Plains farming
        1. Hazards of nature
        2. Hard labor and solitude (especially for women)
      5. Call for large-scale irrigation
        1. John Wesley Powell
        2. Implications for small-scale farmers
      6. Increasing market orientation of small farmers
        1. Forms
          1. Sale of crops
          2. Purchase of manufactured goods
        2. Impacts
          1. Dependence on loans
          2. Vulnerability to shifts in world markets
      7. Budding trend toward large-scale farming
        1. Features
        2. California precedent
    3. Cowboys
      1. Diversity
      2. Myth vs. reality
      3. Rise and decline of cattle drives
    4. Corporate West
      1. Prominent manufacturing and trading centers
        1. San Francisco
        2. Los Angeles
      2. Large corporate enterprises
        1. Lumber
        2. Mining
        3. Railroad
      3. Displacement of independent prospectors, farmers
    5. Subjugation of the Plains Indians
      1. Earlier transformations of Plains Indians
        1. Eighteenth-century shift to hunting and farming
        2. Arrival and coalescence of rival tribes
      2. U.S.-Indian conflict on the Plains
        1. Emergence in 1850s
        2. During Civil War
        3. President Ulysses S. Grant's "peace policy"
        4. Systematic onslaught on Indian life
          1. By U.S. Army, hunters
          2. On villages, horses, buffalo
      3. U.S.-Indian conflict further west
        1. Defeat of the Navajo
          1. Destruction of orchards and sheep
          2. Removal to reservation
        2. Defeat of the Nez Percé
          1. Pursuit of and capture by U.S. Army
          2. Removal to reservation
          3. Chief Joseph's Washington speech
      4. Continuation of Indian resistance
        1. Sioux-Cheyenne victory at Little Big Horn
        2. Apache escapes and raids
      5. Ongoing white encroachment
        1. New western states
        2. Railroads, soldiers, settlers
        3. Indian reservations
          1. Spread of
          2. Impoverishment, exploitation
        4. Reduction of Sitting Bull to popular spectacle
      6. Remaking Indian life—assault on native culture
        1. Imposition of white American values
        2. Elimination of treaty system
        3. Dawes Act
          1. Provisions
          2. Outcomes
      7. Indian citizenship
        1. Conditional offers of American citizenship in nineteenth century
        2. Judicial obstructions to equal citizenship for Indians
          1. Western courts
          2. Supreme Court
        3. Gradual expansion of Indian citizenship
      8. Closing act
        1. Ghost Dance
        2. Wounded Knee massacre
    6. Settlers, societies, and the global west
      1. Global phenomenon of settlement
      2. Similar movements occurred in S. America, Africa, Australia, and New Zealand
  3. Politics in a Gilded Age
    1. Origins and meanings of "Gilded Age"
    2. The corruption of politics
      1. Widespread unease over
      2. Manifestations of
      3. Corporate lobbyists
      4. Urban political machines; "Boss" Tweed
      5. Crédit Mobilier scandal
    3. The politics of dead center—political parties
      1. Imprint of Civil War on each
      2. Social and regional bases of support
        1. Republican
        2. Democratic
      3. Close division of popular support
        1. Presidential elections
        2. Congressional elections
        3. Political stalemate
    4. The state of American political democracy
      1. Indications of vitality
        1. Closely contested elections
        2. Intense party loyalty
        3. High voter turnout
        4. Spectacular rallies and oratory
      2. Meager response to social problems of industrial era
        1. Minimal nature of federal government
          1. Size
          2. Scale of activity
        2. Deference of both parties to business interests
        3. Divergence of parties over tariff policy
        4. Convergence of parties over fiscal policy
      3. Reform legislation—achievements and limits of national politics
        1. Civil Service Act
        2. Interstate Commerce Act
        3. Sherman Antitrust Act
    5. Political ferment in the states
      1. Debate over role of government at state and local levels
        1. Potential points of intervention
        2. Actual points of intervention
      2. Popular campaigns for government action
        1. Greenback-Labor party
        2. Grange
        3. Labor movement
      3. Legacies of popular campaigns
        1. Mixed results in short-term
        2. Sowing of long-term debate on political and economic freedom
  4. Freedom in the Gilded Age
    1. Social problems
      1. Relations between classes
      2. Coexistence of poverty and wealth
      3. Advent of "permanent factory population"
    2. Freedom, inequality, and democracy—Gilded Age inequality
      1. Justifications for concentration of wealth, low wages
      2. Uncoupling of principles of freedom and equality
    3. New "liberal" reformers
      1. Fear of lower-class democracy
      2. Commitment to individual liberty and property rights
    4. Social Darwinism in America
      1. Application of evolutionary science to social problems
      2. Implications for social policy
        1. Acceptance of poverty, material inequality
        2. Rejection of public relief, economic regulation
        3. Notion of "undeserving" poor
      3. William Graham Sumner; What Social Classes Owe to Each Other
    5. Liberty of contract
      1. Link to Social Darwinism
      2. Themes
        1. Freedom as limited government and unrestrained market
        2. Sanctity of labor contract
          1. As arbiter of free labor
          2. As beyond reach of public intervention
      3. The courts and freedom (rulings on regulatory legislation)
        1. Munn v. Illinois
        2. Wabash v. Illinois
        3. Pro-business slant in ICC cases
        4. U.S. v. E.C. Knight Co.
        5. Use of Sherman Antitrust Act against labor
        6. Lochner v. New York
  5. Labor and the Republic
    1. 1877 railroad strike and emergence of "labor question"
    2. Resurgence of labor movement
      1. Knights of Labor
        1. Size and diversity
        2. Range of activities
      2. Variety of programs
      3. Common targets
        1. Ideologies of Social Darwinism and liberty of contract
        2. Growing loss of economic independence
        3. Inequalities of wealth and power
        4. Corruption of democracy by concentrated capital
    3. Middle-class reformers
      1. Unease over social conditions, concentrated capital, class conflict
      2. Range of social prescriptions
    4. Leading works of social criticism
      1. Henry George's Progress and Poverty
        1. Statement of problem
        2. "Single tax" solution
        3. Conceptions of freedom
        4. Mass popularity
      2. Laurence Gronlund's The Cooperative Commonwealth
        1. Popularization of socialist ideal in America
        2. Core socialist principles
        3. Socialism as outcome of peaceful evolution
      3. Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward
        1. Futuristic utopian novel
        2. Themes
          1. Embrace of cooperation, interdependence, equality, economic security, powerful state
          2. Rejection of class strife, individualism, inequality, competition
        3. Impact
          1. Inspiration for Nationalist clubs
          2. Influence on reform thought
    5. Social Gospel movement
      1. Seedbed
        1. Emerging strain within Protestantism
        2. Variant within Catholicism
      2. Themes and initiatives
        1. Critique of Social Darwinism, laissez-faire doctrine, Gospel of Wealth
        2. Vision of equalization of wealth and power, checks on competition
        3. Efforts to ameliorate working-class conditions
        4. Promotion of cooperative organization of economy
    6. The Haymarket affair—labor's great upheaval
      1. Explosive growth of Knights of Labor
      2. Nationwide May Day demonstration for eight-hour day
      3. Haymarket Affair (Chicago)
        1. Background
          1. Iron moulders' strikes of 1885 and 1886
          2. Killing of strikers by police
        2. Bloodshed at Haymarket Square
        3. Scapegoating of labor movement
          1. As violent
          2. As vehicle of immigrant radicals
        4. "Haymarket martyrs"
          1. Arrests, trial, and conviction of anarchists
          2. Hangings, imprisonment, commutations
          3. Albert and Lucy Parsons
    7. Labor and politics
      1. Spread of independent labor political campaigns
        1. Connection to Knights of Labor
        2. Major goals
        3. Electoral successes
      2. New York mayoral campaign of Henry George
      3. Decline of Knights of Labor