Chapter Study Outline

  1. First Modern War
    1. Industrial-era weaponry
    2. Mobilization of society against society
  2. Initial Outlook
    1. Union's material advantages
    2. Confederacy's strategic advantages
    3. Spirit and composition of respective armies
  3. Modern Challenges of War
    1. The technology of the war
      1. Transportation
      2. Communication
      3. Warships
      4. Arms
      5. Medical care
      6. Greater destruction
    2. The public and the war
      1. Propaganda
        1. Union
        2. Confederate
      2. War coverage
        1. News correspondence
        2. Photography
    3. Mobilizing resources
      1. Areas in need of
        1. Rail
        2. Banking
        3. Tax
        4. Military supplies
      2. Comparative performance of Union and Confederacy
        1. Initial unpreparedness of each side
        2. Eventual supremacy of Union military provision
        3. Defensive strategy of Confederacy under Robert E. Lee
        4. Union's early failure to exploit military advantages
        5. Lincoln's strategic insights
          1. Need to pursue South's armies
          2. Need to target slavery
  4. The War (1861–62)
    1. In the East
      1. Major battles
        1. First Bull Run
        2. Seven Days' Campaign
        3. Second Bull Run
        4. Antietam
        5. Fredericksburg
      2. Top generals
        1. George B. McClellan (Army of the Potomac)
        2. Robert E. Lee (Army of Northern Virginia)
    2. In the West
      1. General Ulysses S. Grant
      2. Capture of Forts Henry and Donelson
      3. Occupation of New Orleans by Admiral David G. Farragut
      4. Battle of Shiloh
  5. Coming of Emancipation
    1. Initial Union disclaimers
      1. Abraham Lincoln
      2. Congress
      3. Military commanders
    2. Adoption of "contraband of war" policy
    3. Slave responses to war
      1. Perception of "freedom war"
      2. Escape to Union lines
      3. Provision of intelligence to Union army
      4. Disruption of plantations
    4. Steps toward emancipation
      1. Growing support in North
      2. Congressional measures
        1. Ban on return of fugitive slaves
        2. Abolition in District of Columbia and territories
        3. Second Confiscation Act
      3. Lincoln's shifting position
        1. Rescinding of John C. Frémont's emancipation decree (Missouri)
        2. Proposal for gradual, compensated emancipation in border states
        3. Endorsement of colonization
    5. Emancipation Proclamation
      1. Lincoln's decision
        1. Reasoning behind
        2. Timing of announcement
      2. Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation
        1. Terms
        2. Northern reaction
          1. Racial alarm by Democrats
          2. Republican setbacks in fall elections
          3. Lincoln response
      3. Issuance of Emancipation Proclamation
        1. Terms
          1. Extent of emancipation
          2. Limits of emancipation
        2. Implications
          1. Merging of war goals of Union and abolition
          2. Commitment of North to black enlistment
          3. Recognition that freedpeople's future lay in America
    6. Black soldiers in Union army
      1. Steps toward black enlistment
        1. Initial refusal to accept black volunteers
        2. Employment of escaped slaves in noncombat positions
        3. Recruitment of black soldiers
      2. Black military performance
        1. Numbers who served and died
        2. Record of bravery
        3. Impact on public consciousness
      3. Impact on black participants
        1. Experience of freedom
        2. Seedbed for postwar black leadership
      4. Unequal treatment of black troops
        1. Kinds of inequality in Army
        2. Contrast to practice in Navy
        3. Exceptional brutality from Confederate captors
      5. Legacies of black military effort
        1. Heightened black sense of entitlement to citizenship
        2. Expanded northern commitment to equal rights
        3. Impact on Lincoln
  6. The Second American Revolution
    1. New conceptions of American nation
      1. As embodiment of universal ideals
        1. Political democracy
        2. Human liberty
        3. Equal rights
      2. Lincoln's Gettysburg Address
      3. Lincoln's vision; the U.S. as a nation-state
      4. From "Union" to "nation"
        1. Expansion of government power and responsibilities
        2. Shift in balance of power from state to federal government
      5. The war and American religion
    2. Liberty in wartime
      1. Limits of wartime dissent
        1. Arrests of critics of war effort or government
        2. Suspension of habeas corpus
      2. Limits of wartime suppression
        1. Continued presence of Democratic press
        2. Continued holding of contested elections
    3. The North's transformation
      1. Economic growth and development
        1. Industry
        2. Agriculture
      2. Federal contribution to
        1. Homestead Act
        2. Land Grant College Act
        3. Land grant for transcontinental railroad
          1. Terms of grant
          2. Scale of project
          3. Impact of project
      3. New financial system
        1. Increased tariffs
        2. New taxes
          1. On production and consumption of goods
          2. On income
        3. Government borrowing
        4. New national paper currency; "greenbacks"
          1. Issued by federal government
          2. Issued by federally chartered banks
      4. Forging of industrial fortunes
    4. The war and Native Americans
      1. Federal troops withdrawn from the West
      2. Increased conflict between Native Americans and settlers
      3. Especially in the North; Sioux
      4. Slaveholding tribes sided with Confederacy
    5. Women and the war
      1. New job opportunities
        1. In factories
        2. In professions
        3. In government offices
      2. Involvement in military campaigns
      3. Participation in voluntary associations
        1. United States Sanitary Commission
        2. Expanded sense of public role
        3. Leading figures
          1. Clara Barton
          2. Mary Livermore
    6. Social and political tensions
      1. Targets of resentment
        1. "Copperhead" opposition
        2. Expanded federal power
        3. Inequalities of draft system
        4. Business profits
        5. Prospect of racial equality
      2. New York City draft riots
  7. State and Society in the South
    1. Limitations of Confederate governance
      1. President Jefferson Davis
      2. "King Cotton Diplomacy"
        1. Failed effort to compel British recognition
        2. Prod to expanded production overseas
      3. Obstructionist governors
    2. Southern white sentiment
      1. Initial wave of enthusiasm for Confederacy
      2. Points of growing disaffection
        1. Inequalities of draft system
        2. Material shortages
        3. Material devastation
        4. "Impressment" of farmers' goods
        5. Impoverishment of yeomen
      3. Manifestations of disaffection
        1. Food riots
        2. Desertion
        3. Southern Unionists
          1. Organized movements
          2. Secret societies
          3. Suppression of
    3. Southern white women and the Confederacy
      1. Wartime burdens on the home front
      2. Increasing disgruntlement with war
    4. Initiative to bring slaves into Confederate army
      1. Backing for plan by Confederate authorities
      2. Rejection by Confederate Senate
      3. Eventual approval by Lee, Confederate Congress
  8. Progress of the War (1863–64)
    1. Continued momentum of Confederacy
      1. Victory at Chancellorsville
      2. Lee's invasion of the North
    2. Turning point
      1. Union victory at Gettysburg
      2. Confederate surrender at Vicksburg
    3. Grant's war of attrition
      1. The Wilderness
      2. Spotsylvania
      3. Cold Harbor
      4. Petersburg
    4. William T. Sherman's march to Atlanta
  9. Election of 1864
    1. Initial doubts about Lincoln's prospects
    2. Radical Republican groundswell for Frémont candidacy
    3. Democratic nomination of McClellan
    4. Late surge for Lincoln
    5. Lincoln victory
  10. Wartime rehearsals for Reconstruction
    1. Emerging questions concerning transition from slavery to freedom
    2. Sea Island experiment
      1. Participants
      2. Range of perspectives and agendas
    3. Louisiana and Mississippi Valley
      1. Participants
      2. Range of perspectives and agendas
    4. Northern debate over terms of southern readmission
      1. Lincoln's Ten-Percent Plan
      2. Radical Republicans' Wade-Davis Bill
  11. Conclusion of War (1864–65)
    1. Sherman's March to the Sea, then South Carolina
    2. Congressional passage of Thirteenth Amendment
    3. Lincoln's second inaugural
    4. Union occupation of Richmond
    5. Lee's surrender to Grant at Appomattox
    6. The war and the world
      1. U.S. military power recognized in Europe
      2. Lincoln and Grant seen as nation builders by Europeans
    7. The war and American history
      1. End of slavery
      2. The foundation of modern America
      3. Increased power of federal government
    8. Assassination of Lincoln
      1. Story of
      2. Scope of national mourning