Chapter Study Outline

  1. Continental Expansion
    1. Oregon
    2. Mexican frontier
  2. The Mexican Frontier: New Mexico and California
    1. Pre-American settlers
      1. Mexican independence from Spain
      2. Mexicans and Indians
      3. California's commercial links to the United States
    2. The Texas revolt
      1. Initial emigration to Texas
      2. Mexican efforts to check American presence
      3. Texas revolt
        1. Demand by U.S. settlers and Tejano allies for greater autonomy
        2. Clamp-down by Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
        3. Declaration of Independence
        4. Battle of the Alamo; "Remember the Alamo"
        5. Defeat of Santa Anna by Sam Houston at San Jacinto
      4. Republic of Texas
        1. Establishment
        2. Election of Houston as first president
        3. Early quest for U.S. annexation; opposition by President Jackson
        4. Swelling of American emigration
    3. The election of 1844
      1. Revival of annexation issue
        1. Texas
          1. Relation to slavery question
          2. Support from John Tyler, James K. Polk
          3. Opposition from Henry Clay, Martin Van Buren
        2. Oregon; "Fifty-four forty or fight"
      2. Democrat Polk vs. Whig Clay
      3. Election of Polk
    4. The road to war; annexation under Polk
      1. Texas
      2. Oregon up to forty-ninth parallel
      3. Pursuit of California
  3. Mexican War
    1. Immediate causes
      1. Impasse over California
      2. Texas-Mexico border dispute
      3. Polk declaration of war on Mexico
    2. Response among Americans
      1. Broad support
        1. Spirit of manifest destiny
        2. America as bearer of liberty
      2. The war and its critics
        1. War will promote expansion of slavery
        2. War undermines democratic values
        3. Thoreau and principle of civil disobedience
        4. Lincoln's opposition to president's war-making power
    3. Course of war
      1. California
        1. American rebels' declaration of independence from Mexico
        2. Announcement of Bear Flag Republic under John C. Frémont
        3. Arrival of U.S. Navy, superseding Bear Flag Republic
      2. Santa Fe
        1. Occupation by U.S. troops under Stephen W. Kearney
        2. Subsequent suppression by Kearney of Mexican resistance in southern California
      3. Mexico
        1. Defeat of Santa Anna by Zachary Taylor at Battle of Buena Vista
        2. Occupation of Mexico City by Winfield Scott
    4. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
      1. Confirmation of U.S. annexation of Texas
      2. Ceding to the United States of California and present-day New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah
      3. Payment by the United States to Mexico of $15 million
    5. Mexico's lasting resentment over war
    6. "Race" and manifest destiny
      1. Affirmation of manifest destiny assumptions
        1. "Anglo-Saxon race" as innately superior
        2. Association of Anglo-Saxon Protestants with civilization, progress, liberty
      2. Social inequalities of newly acquired territories
        1. Introduction of slavery
        2. Ethnic discrimination
  4. Gold Rush California
    1. Rise of mining frontier
      1. Discovery of gold
      2. Influx of migrants from around nation and world
      3. Growth of San Francisco
      4. Spread of mining communities
    2. Character of mining frontier
      1. Social diversity
      2. Shift from surface to underground mining
      3. Vigilantism
      4. Marginalization of non-whites
      5. Destruction of Indian communities
  5. Opening Japan
    1. U.S./Japan
      1. U.S. Navy squadron under the command of Commodore Perry arrives in Tokyo Bay in 1853–54
      2. Trade treaty negotiated between U.S. and Japan
    2. Japan and the world
      1. Japan opened to world trade
      2. Japan transformed; modernized
      3. Japan becomes industrial and military power
  6. Revival of Slavery Question; "A Dose of Arsenic"
    1. Wilmot Proviso
      1. Provisions and outcome
      2. Impact
        1. Reawakening of slavery controversy
        2. Sectional fragmentation of Democratic and Whig Parties
    2. 1848 election
      1. Whig Taylor vs. Democrat Lewis Cass
      2. Election of Taylor
      3. Significance of Free Soil Party's showing
    3. The free soil appeal
      1. Resentment of southern domination of federal government
      2. Vision of West as haven for economic independence
      3. White aversion to contact and competition with blacks
    4. White South's case for westward expansion of slavery
      1. Regional pride
      2. Need for fresh soil
      3. Economic imperative
      4. Preservation of political balance between North and South
  7. Crisis and Compromise
    1. Compromise of 1850
      1. Backdrop
        1. Sectional clash over slavery question
        2. 1848: revolution and reaction across Europe
      2. Proposals and debates
        1. Clay plan
        2. Senate debate
          1. Daniel Webster; pro-compromise
          2. John C. Calhoun; uncompromising defense of slavery
          3. William Seward; uncompromising assault on slavery
      3. Outcome
        1. Death of President Taylor
        2. President Millard Fillmore's support for Clay plan
        3. Adoption of Compromise of 1850
    2. The fugitive slave issue
      1. Terms of Fugitive Slave Act
      2. Outrage over Fugitive Slave Act in North
      3. Federal tribunals and return of fugitives to South
      4. Resistance to recapture
      5. Black flight to Canada
    3. Kansas-Nebraska controversy
      1. Douglas's Kansas-Nebraska bill
        1. Nullification of Missouri Compromise
        2. Principle of "popular sovereignty"
      2. Broad antislavery reaction in North
      3. Outcome
        1. Passage of bill
        2. Collapse of Whigs
        3. Fracturing of northern Democrats
        4. Birth of Republican Party
  8. Rise of Republican Party
    1. Underlying economic and political trends
      1. The northern economy
        1. Economic growth of 1840s and 1850s
        2. Integration of Northwest and Northeast within a dynamic economy
          1. Expanded railroad network
          2. Western agriculture
          3. Industrial production
          4. Spread and growth of cities
      2. Rise and fall of Know-Nothing Party
        1. Nativist hostility to immigrants, Catholics
        2. Links between anti-Catholic and antislavery sentiment
        3. Limits of nativist crusade
    2. Republican Party appeal
      1. Free labor ideal
        1. Opposition to expansion of slavery; "freedom national"
        2. Juxtaposition of "free labor North" and "slave South"
        3. Depiction of free labor and slavery as incompatible
        4. Broad appeal in North
      2. Further factors behind rise of Republican Party
        1. "Bleeding Kansas"
        2. Preston Brooks's assault on Charles Sumner
    3. Election of 1856
      1. Victory of Democrat James Buchanan
      2. Emergence of Republicans as dominant in North, Democrats as dominant in South
  9. Toward Disunion
    1. Dred Scott decision
      1. Key elements (Taney opinion)
        1. African-Americans devoid of citizenship rights
        2. Congress powerless to restrict slavery in territories
      2. The decision's aftermath
        1. Indignation in North
        2. Lecompton Constitution controversy
    2. Lincoln-Douglas senate campaign of 1858
      1. Abraham Lincoln
        1. Personal background
        2. Lincoln and slavery
          1. Moral denunciation of slavery
          2. Call for containment, but not abolition, of slavery
          3. Personification of Republican free labor ideology
          4. Racial perspective
      2. The Lincoln-Douglas campaign
      3. Outcome
    3. John Brown at Harpers Ferry
      1. Background on Brown
      2. The raid
      3. Trial and execution
      4. Vilification and martyrization
      5. Continuing inspiration for activists
    4. Rise of southern nationalism
      1. Secessionist impulse
      2. Imperial impulse
        1. Ostend Manifesto
        2. William Walker expeditions
          1. Baja California
          2. Nicaragua
      3. Measures to fortify slavery
    5. Election of 1860
      1. The Democratic split
        1. Stephen A. Douglas as nominee for northern wing
        2. John C. Breckinridge as nominee for southern wing
      2. The [Republican] nomination of Lincoln
      3. Newly formed Constitutional Union Party nomination of John Bell
      4. Lincoln victory, based on sweep of northern states
  10. The impending crisis
    1. Secession of seven Deep South states
    2. Crittenden Compromise effort
    3. Formation of Confederate States of America
      1. Seven Deep South states
      2. President Jefferson Davis
      3. Centrality of slavery and white supremacy to Confederate pronouncements
    4. Inauguration of Lincoln
    5. Lincoln's balancing act
    6. Confederate attack on Fort Sumter [the war came]
    7. Lincoln's call for troops to suppress insurrection
    8. Secession of four more southern states