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Chapter Study Outline

  1. The Old South
    1. Emergence of slavery as "peculiar institution"
    2. Cotton and the growth of southern slavery
      1. Central place of cotton in world economy
      2. Southern dominance of world cotton supply
      3. Emergence of United States as center of new world slavery
    3. Rise of internal slave trade
      1. Pace and magnitude
      2. Geographical patterns
      3. Public visibility
      4. Integral place in southern commerce
      5. Importance to Cotton Kingdom
    4. Slavery's impact on national life
      1. Political
      2. Economic
      3. In North
        1. Commerce
        2. Manufacturing
      4. In South
        1. Vitality of plantation economy
        2. Limits on industrialization, immigration, and urban growth
        3. The New Orleans exception
    5. Plain folk
      1. Remoteness from market revolution; self-sufficiency
      2. Class strata
        1. Isolated poor
        2. Yeomanry
      3. Relation to planter elite
        1. Alienation
        2. Bonds
          1. Racial
          2. Familial
          3. Political
          4. Regional
      4. Aspects of slave system
        1. Material
        2. Ideological
    6. Planter elite
      1. Measures of regional dominance
        1. Scale of slaveownership
        2. Size and quality of landholding
        3. Income
        4. Political power
      2. Economic engagement in world market
      3. Paternalistic, noncompetitive ethos
        1. Defining features
        2. Contributing factors
        3. Influence on southern values
      4. Intellectual life
    7. Proslavery argument
      1. Rising currency in southern thought
      2. Elements of
        1. Racial assumptions
        2. Biblical themes
        3. Notions of human progress
        4. Prospects for equality among whites
      3. Shift to more hierarchical defense of slavery
    8. Abolition in the Americas
      1. Slave uprisings and revolts
      2. End of slavery in Latin America
      3. Such events encouraged southern fears
  2. Life under Slavery
    1. Slaves and the law
      1. General patterns
        1. Status as property
        2. Pervasive denial of legal rights
        3. Power of slaveowners over enforcement
        4. Law as mechanism of master's control
      2. Nineteenth-century trends
        1. Legislation to humanize bondage
          1. Features
          2. Contributing factors
        2. Legislation to tighten bondage
          1. Features
          2. Contributing factors
    2. Conditions of slave life
      1. Some states enacted laws to prevent mistreatment of slaves
      2. Generally better living conditions for slaves in North America
      3. Improvement of living conditions aimed at preventing revolts, thus reinforcing slavery
      4. Southern states also strengthened laws relating to slavery and manumission (freeing of individual slaves)
    3. Free blacks in the Old South
      1. Size
      2. Social and civil stature
        1. Blurry line between slavery and freedom
        2. Broad denial of legal rights
      3. Growing reputation as threat to slave system
      4. Regional variations
        1. Lower South
          1. Small numbers
          2. Concentration in cities
          3. Free black elite
        2. Upper South
          1. Concentration in farmlands
          2. Ties to slave community
    4. Slave labor
      1. Diversity of occupations
      2. Agricultural
        1. Small farms vs. plantations
        2. Gang labor (cotton, sugar) vs. task labor (rice)
      3. Urban
        1. Relative autonomy and independence
        2. Growing reputation as threat to slave system
    5. Maintaining order
      1. Physical punishment
      2. Manipulation of divisions
      3. Material incentives
      4. Threat of sale
  3. Slave Culture
    1. General features
      1. Central arenas
        1. Family
        2. Church
      2. Chief functions
        1. Survival of bondage
        2. Preservation of self-esteem
        3. Transmission of collective values across generations
      3. Sources
        1. African heritage
        2. American values and experiences
    2. Slave family
      1. Demographic foundation
      2. Legal constraints
      3. Resiliency
      4. Distinctive kinship patterns
      5. Vulnerability to breakup through sale
      6. Gender roles
        1. "Equality of powerlessness"
        2. Assertion of gender roles where possible
    3. Slave religion
      1. Practices
        1. Black preachers on plantations
        2. Urban black churches
      2. Influences
        1. Fusion of African and Christian traditions
        2. Religious revivals in South
      3. The gospel of freedom; slaves' version of Christianity
        1. Solace amid bondage
        2. Hope for liberation
        3. Sympathy for the oppressed
        4. Brotherhood and equality
      4. Negation of masters' proslavery version
    4. Desire for freedom and justice
      1. As expressed in folk tales, spirituals
      2. Reflection of American language of freedom
  4. Resistance to Slavery
    1. Forms of resistance
      1. "Day-to-day"
      2. "Silent sabotage"
    2. Escape—fugitive slaves
      1. Obstacles
      2. Destinations
        1. Southern cities
        2. Remote areas within South
        3. North
      3. Underground Railroad
        1. Resourcefulness
        2. Harriet Tubman
      4. Large-scale collective escape
        1. Infrequency of
        2. Amistad episode
    3. Slave revolts
      1. Major nineteenth-century episodes
        1. Gabriel's Rebellion
        2. Louisiana sugar plantation slave rebellion
        3. Denmark Vesey conspiracy
        4. Nat Turner's Rebellion
      2. Notable patterns
        1. Infrequency
        2. Blend of African and American influences
        3. Link between open rebellion and quieter resistance
        4. Bleak prospects for success in South
      3. Aftermath of Nat Turner's rebellion in South
        1. White panic
        2. Widespread assaults on slaves
        3. Tightening of restrictions on blacks (slave and free)
        4. Stifling of slavery debate, abolitionism