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Chapter Study Outline

  1. Triumph of Democracy
    1. Property and democracy
      1. Property qualifications eliminated
      2. Enfranchisement of wage-earning men
      3. Popular pressures behind
      4. Uneven pace of, state by state
      5. Dorr War
    2. Tocqueville on democracy; elements of American democracy
      1. Mass participation in politics
      2. Liveliness of the public sphere
      3. Democracy as "habit of the heart" (Alexis de Tocqueville)
      4. Democracy as hallmark of American freedom
      5. Democratic ideal as radical departure in Western thought
    3. Boundaries of the political nation
      1. Inclusion of laboring white men, immigrants
      2. Exclusion of women, non-whites
      3. Shift in criteria from economic status to natural capacity
    4. Information revolution
      1. Manifestations
        1. Mass circulation of "penny press"
        2. Variety of popular publications
        3. "Alternative" newspapers
      2. Contributing factors
        1. New printing technologies
        2. Low postal rates
        3. Rise of political party organizations
      3. New style of journalism
    5. The limits of democracy
      1. Idea of "universal" suffrage
      2. Exclusion of women voting
      3. Exclusion of non-white men voting
      4. Extent of voting franchise open to debate until 1965
    6. Racial democracy
      1. Growing equation of democracy and whiteness
      2. Rise of racist stereotypes
      3. Contraction of black rights
      4. Race and class increasingly related to suffrage
  2. Nationalism and its Discontents
    1. The American System
      1. Underlying vision
        1. Enhancement of nation's financial, transportation, and manufacturing sectors
        2. Active role of federal government
      2. Leading architects
        1. Henry Clay
        2. John C. Calhoun
      3. Precursors
        1. Congressional approval of National Road
        2. Gallatin plan for federal road and canal construction
      4. 1815 blueprint
        1. National bank
        2. Tariff on imported manufactured goods
        3. "Internal improvements" (road and canals)
      5. Outcome
        1. Enactment of tariff
        2. Chartering of Second Bank of the United States ("Bank")
        3. Veto of internal improvements
    2. Banks and money
    3. Panic of 1819
      1. Causes
        1. Postwar speculative fever
          1. Markets for American cotton and grain
          2. Land boom in West
          3. Easy credit from local banks and Bank
        2. Ebbing demand for American exports, land
      2. Material repercussions
        1. Mass bankruptcy
        2. Rising unemployment
      3. Political repercussions of the panic
        1. Growing popular distrust of banks
        2. State measures to protect debtors, challenge Bank
        3. McCulloch v. Maryland
    4. Missouri controversy
      1. Narrative
        1. Missouri quest for statehood
        2. Tallmadge proposal limiting slavery
        3. Stalemate
        4. First Missouri Compromise
          1. Dual admission of Missouri and Maine
          2. Prohibition of slavery above 36°30'
        5. Second Missouri Compromise
      2. Significance
        1. Sectional conflict amid "Era of Good Feelings"
        2. Harbinger of future crises over slavery
  3. Nation, Section, and Party
    1. The United States and the Latin American wars of independence
      1. Background
        1. Latin American rebellions against Spanish colonial rule
        2. Establishment of independent Latin American nations
      2. Many parallels between U.S. War of Independence and those in Latin America
      3. Much U.S. public sympathy for Latin American independence
      4. New republics influenced by U.S.; especially with respect to new constitutions
    2. Monroe Doctrine
      1. Principles
        1. No further European colonization in Americas
        2. Noninterference by European powers in Latin American republics
        3. Noninvolvement of United States in European wars
      2. Motivations
    3. Election of 1824
      1. Candidates and their constituencies
        1. Andrew Jackson
        2. John Quincy Adams
        3. William H. Crawford
        4. Henry Clay
      2. Outcome
        1. Attainment by Jackson of first place in popular vote
        2. Attainment by Adams of electoral vote majority (in House)
        3. Charges of "corrupt bargain" between Adams and Clay
    4. The nationalism of John Q. Adams: the Adams presidency
      1. Background on Adams
      2. Vision for nation
        1. Domestic
          1. American System
          2. Activist national state
        2. Foreign
          1. Dynamic commerce around world
          2. U.S. hegemony in Western Hemisphere
      3. Achievements
        1. Acceleration of internal
        2. Increase in tariff
    5. Gathering Jacksonian challenge
      1. Themes: "Liberty is power"
        1. Individual liberty
        2. States' rights
        3. Limited government
      2. Mobilization of Democratic Party
        1. Martin Van Buren's approach to party politics
        2. Quest for revived Jeffersonian coalition
    6. Election of 1828
      1. Old politics (Adams) vs. new politics (Jackson)
      2. Scurrilous campaigning
      3. Jackson's victory
      4. Affirmation of a new American politics
  4. Age of Jackson
    1. Contradictions of Andrew Jackson
    2. New mode of politics
      1. Political contests as public spectacle, mass entertainment
      2. Politicians as popular heroes
      3. The party machine
        1. Source of jobs for constituents
        2. Mobilizer of voter turnout
        3. "Spoils system"
      4. National party conventions
      5. Party newspapers
    3. The Democratic Party
      1. Agenda and philosophy
        1. Concern over gulf between social classes
        2. Aversion to federal promotion of economic development, "special interests"
        3. Vision of broad access to self-regulating market
        4. Belief in limits on federal power; public and private freedom
        5. Counterposing of "producing classes" and "nonproducers"
        6. Individual morality as private concern; politics of morality
      2. Bases of support
        1. Farmers remote from markets
        2. Urban workers
        3. Aspiring entrepreneurs
        4. Catholics and immigrants
        5. South and West
    4. The Whig Party
      1. Agenda and philosophy
        1. Receptiveness to hierarchy of social classes
        2. Federal promotion of economic development; "American System"
        3. Individual morality as public concern
      2. Bases of support
        1. Established businessmen and bankers
        2. Market-oriented farmers
        3. Large planters
        4. Evangelical Protestants
        5. Northeast
    5. South Carolina and Nullification
      1. Growing concern of southern planters over national authority
      2. 1828 "tariff of abominations"
      3. "Nullification"—Calhoun's political theory
        1. South Carolina planter elite
        2. Vice president Calhoun
      4. "States' rights" vs. "liberty and union"
      5. Climax and resolution
        1. 1832 tariff
        2. Repudiation by South Carolina
        3. Enactment of Force Bill by Congress
        4. Engineering of compromise by Clay
    6. Indian removal
      1. Ongoing displacement
        1. 1832 defeat of Black Hawk in Old Northwest (Illinois)
        2. 1820s expulsion of Indians from Missouri
      2. 1830 Indian Removal Act
        1. Provision for removal of "Five Civilized Tribes" from southern states
        2. Support from Jackson
        3. Implications
          1. Repudiation of Jeffersonian idea of assimilation
          2. Rebuff of Indian efforts to assimilate
        4. Cherokee appeals to Congress, courts
        5. The Supreme Court and the Indians
          1. Johnson v. M'Intosh
          2. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
          3. Worcester v. Georgia
        6. Jackson defiance of Supreme Court
        7. Trail of Tears
      3. Responses of remaining southern tribes
        1. Widespread acquiescence, voluntary departure
        2. Resistance by Seminoles
          1. Leadership of Osceola
          2. Assistance from fugitive slaves
          3. Second Seminole War
      4. William Apess's A Son of the Forest
      5. Receding of Indian presence east of the Mississippi
    7. The Bank War and after
      1. Background
        1. Bank as controversial symbol of market revolution
        2. "Mr. Biddle's Bank"—Nicholas Biddle and the Bank
        3. View of Bank as union of political authority and economic privilege
      2. Jackson vs. Bank
        1. 1832 bill extending Bank charter
        2. Veto by Jackson
      3. Significance
        1. Populist themes of veto message
        2. Affirmation of presidential power
      4. Aftermath
        1. Sweeping reelection of Jackson
        2. Gradual death of Bank
        3. Shift of government funds to local banks
          1. Victory of "soft-money" over "hard-money" Jacksonians
          2. "Pet banks"
        4. Expansion of paper currency
        5. Speculative boom
        6. Decline in real wages
  5. Post-Jackson Era
    1. The Panic of 1837
      1. Causes
        1. Specie Circular
        2. Bank of England demand for repayment in gold or silver
        3. Economic downturn in Britain
      2. Resulting Depression
        1. Business failures
        2. Farmers' loss of land
        3. Urban unemployment
        4. Collapse of labor movement
        5. Defaults on state debts
    2. Van Buren in office
      1. Ascendancy of hard-money Democrats
      2. Shift of government funds from pet banks to Independent Treasury
      3. Split within Democratic Party
    3. Election of 1840
      1. Fragmenting of Democratic coalition
      2. Maturation of Whig Party
        1. Adoption of Democratic Party methods of organization
        2. Nomination of William Henry Harrison
        3. "Log Cabin" campaign
      3. Harrison's defeat of Van Buren
      4. Death of Harrison
    4. "His Accidency"—presidency of John Tyler
      1. Veto of Whig's American System program
      2. Whig repudiation of Tyler
      3. Weakness of Tyler without party backing