Chapter Study Outline

  1. Politics in an Age of Passion; Washington's Presidency
    1. Outset of the Washington administration
      1. George Washington as symbol of national unity, virtue
      2. Key figures
    2. Hamilton's program
      1. Vision for the republic
        1. Robust economic development
        2. Close commercial ties to Europe
        3. Military power
        4. Strong national government
      2. Program
        1. Federal assumption of national and state debts
        2. Creation of new national debt
        3. Establishment of Bank of the United States
        4. Whiskey tax
        5. Government promotion of industrial manufacture
          1. Tariffs
          2. Subsidies
        6. National army
      3. Bases of support
    3. The emergence of opposition; Jeffersonians
      1. Vision for the republic
        1. Westward expansion
        2. Land for independent farmers
        3. Free trade
      2. Critique of Hamilton program
        1. Threat to liberty from a standing army
        2. Favoritism toward speculators at expense of small farmers
        3. Favoritism toward diversified North at expense of agrarian South
      3. Bases of support
    4. The Jefferson-Hamilton Bargain; 1790 compromise
    5. Divisions over foreign affairs
      1. The impact of the French Revolution
        1. Enthusiasm (Jeffersonians)
        2. Alarm (Washington, Hamilton)
      2. Aggravating developments
        1. War between France and Britain
        2. Edward Genêt tour of America
        3. British encroachments on American ships
        4. Jay Treaty
    6. Political parties
      1. The Federalist Party
        1. Agenda and philosophy
          1. Hamilton's economic program
          2. Close ties with Britain
          3. Suppression of popular unrest (Whiskey Rebellion)
          4. Fixed social hierarchy
        2. Bases of support
      2. The Republican Party
        1. Agenda and philosophy
          1. Democratic self-government
          2. Aversion to social and economic inequality
        2. Bases of support
      3. Intensity of partisan debate
    7. Expanding the public sphere; public debate
      1. Contributing factors
        1. Partisan divisions
        2. British radicalism
          1. Emigrants to America
          2. Thomas Paine's Rights of Man
      2. Manifestations
        1. Political meetings, pamphlets, newspapers
        2. Democratic-Republican societies
        3. Emerging principle of democratic rights
      3. Implications for partisan politics
        1. Federalist alarm
        2. Republican receptiveness
    8. The rights of women
      1. Expanding participation in public discussion
      2. Influential voices
        1. Mary Wollstonecraft
        2. Judith Sargent Murray
  2. The Adams Presidency
    1. Election of 1796
      1. Washington's retirement and farewell
      2. Federalist Adams's victory over Republican Jefferson
      3. Sectional division of the vote
    2. Adams's troubled presidency
      1. Embroilment in British-French conflict
        1. Seizure of American ships by each side
        2. XYZ affair
        3. "Quasi-war" with France
        4. Negotiated peace of 1800
      2. Crackdown on political dissent
        1. Background
          1. Rural unrest
          2. Dissent against Federalists
        2. Provisions of Alien and Sedition Acts
        3. Arrest and conviction of Republican opponents
        4. Forms of protest
          1. Republican press
          2. Virginia and Kentucky resolutions
        5. Themes of protest
          1. Free expression as essential to liberty
          2. Limits of federal power over the states
    3. Election of 1800: The "Revolution of 1800"
      1. Republican mobilization; "Jefferson and Liberty"
      2. Constitutional crisis over election
        1. Particulars
        2. Outcome
          1. Jefferson over Adams
          2. Twelfth Amendment
      3. Peaceful transfer of power
  3. Slavery and Politics
    1. Debate in first Congress over emancipation
    2. Passage of fugitive slave law
    3. The Haitian Revolution; impact of Saint-Domingue slave revolt
      1. Inspiration among slaves
      2. Alarm among whites
    4. Gabriel's Rebellion
      1. Features of the conspiracy
        1. Artisanal makeup
        2. Roots in Richmond's black community
        3. Language of liberty
      2. Discovery and defeat
      3. Aftereffects
        1. Awareness of slaves' aspiration for freedom
        2. Increased control over black population (slave and free) in South
  4. Jefferson in Power
    1. Goals of new administration
      1. Conciliatory tone toward opponents
      2. Reduction in expense, size, and power of national government
      3. Unrestricted trade
      4. Freedom of press and religion
      5. Avoidance of "entangling alliances" with foreign powers
    2. Establishment of judicial review of federal and state laws
      1. Chief Justice John Marshall
      2. Marbury v. Madison
      3. Fletcher v. Peck
    3. Louisiana Purchase
      1. Napoleon's motivations for selling
      2. Jefferson's motivations for buying
        1. Unimpeded access to port of New Orleans
        2. "Extending the sphere" of the republic
        3. Ensuring the future of American agriculture
        4. Tension between benefits of purchase and principle of limited government
      3. Federalist alarm
      4. Lewis and Clark expedition
        1. Objects
          1. Scientific exploration
          2. Trade relations with western Indians
          3. Commercial route to Asia
        2. Outcome
          1. Abundant information on newly acquired territory
          2. Achievement of overland travel to Pacific
      5. Incorporation of Louisiana
        1. Significance of New Orleans area
        2. Rights of blacks and women under Spanish and French rule
        3. Declining status of blacks under American rule
  5. Foreign Entanglements
    1. The Barbary wars
      1. Barbary states in North Africa
      2. Home to pirates; problem for sea-faring nations and world trade
      3. U.S. sent naval squadron to protect trade; Battle of Tripoli
      4. First U.S. contact with Islam
    2. Renewed embroilment in British-French conflict
      1. Impact of war between Britain and France on America
        1. Blockade on American shipping by each side
        2. Impressment of Americans by British navy
      2. Jefferson's embargo on American exports
        1. Terms
        2. Purposes
        3. Results
          1. Memories of Intolerable Acts
          2. Minimal impact on British and French
          3. Devastation of American port economies
        4. Scaling back of embargo
          1. Non-Intercourse Act
          2. Macon's Bill No. 2
  6. Recent Trends in U.S.-Indian Relations
    1. Varied U.S. policies toward Indians
      1. Removal
      2. Assimilation
    2. The Indian response
      1. Endorsement of assimilation
      2. Call for preservation of autonomy
        1. Non-confrontational approach
        2. Militant, pan-Indian approach
          1. Tenskwatawa at Prophetstown
          2. Tecumseh in Mississippi Valley
    3. Battle of Tippecanoe
  7. The War of 1812
    1. Prelude
      1. Persisting British attacks on American vessels
      2. Reinstatement of embargo by President Madison
      3. Emergence of War Hawks
        1. Leading figures
          1. Henry Clay
          2. John C. Calhoun
        2. Themes
          1. National honor
          2. Unimpeded foreign trade
          3. Expansion of republic
      4. Reports of British encouragement of Tecumseh
    2. Outbreak of war
      1. Madison's call for war
      2. National divisions over
        1. Strong opposition in North
        2. Strong support in South and West
    3. Course of war
      1. Britain's material advantages
      2. British successes
        1. Repulsion of U.S. invasions of Canada
        2. Destruction by blockade of American commerce
        3. Invasion of Washington, D.C.
      3. American successes
        1. Battle of Lake Erie
        2. Repulsion of British assault on Baltimore
        3. Battle of the Thames (defeat of Tecumseh)
        4. Battle of Horseshoe Bend (defeat of hostile Creeks)
        5. Battle of New Orleans
    4. The war's aftermath
      1. Treaty of Ghent
      2. Celebration of republic's virtue and resilience
      3. Completion of U.S. conquest of eastern land
      4. Setbacks to Indian power
        1. In Old Northwest
        2. In South
      5. Acceleration of white westward settlement
      6. The end of the Federalist Party
        1. Costs of antiwar stance
        2. Hartford Convention
        3. Modest size of commercial and financial base
        4. Elitism