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From James Madison, The Federalist no. 51, and Anti-Federalist Essay Signed "Brutus" (1787)

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It is of great importance in a republic not only to guard the society against the oppression of its rulers, but to guard one part of society against the injustice of the other part. Different interests necessarily exist in different classes of citizens. If a majority be united by common interest, the rights of the minority will be insecure....In a free government the security for civil rights might be the same as for religious rights. It consists in the one case in the multiplicity of interests, and in the other in the multiplicity of sects. The degree of security in both cases will depend on the number of interests and sects....In the extended republic of the United States, and among the great variety of interests, parties, and sects which it embraces, a coalition of the majority of the whole society could seldom take place on any other principles than those of justice and general good.* * *A free republic cannot succeed over a country of such immense extent....The great officers of the government would soon become above the control of the people, and abuse their power to the purpose of aggrandizing themselves, and oppressing them....They will use their power, when they have acquired it, to the purposes of gratifying their own interest and ambition, and it is scarcely possible, in a very large republic, to call them to account for their misconduct, or to prevent their abuse of power....This scheme is defective...in the foundation upon which a free and equal government must rest.