Chapter Study Outline

  1. Slavery and Empire
    1. Slavery and the British empire
      1. British control of slave trade
      2. Atlantic trade
      3. Slaveowning as an element of "freedom"
    2. Africa and the slave trade
      1. Participation of African rulers
      2. Introduction of European goods
      3. Consequences for West African societies
        1. Opportunities for rulers, merchants
        2. Impact of imported textiles on craft production
        3. Impact of imported guns on slave trade, relations among kingdoms
        4. Depletion of African population
    3. Middle Passage
    4. Regional patterns of slavery
      1. Chesapeake slavery; tobacco kingdom (Virginia, Maryland)
        1. Breadth and importance of slavery
        2. Forms of slave labor
        3. Social hierarchy of slave society
      2. Slavery in rice kingdom (South Carolina, Georgia)
        1. Breadth and importance of slavery
        2. Forms of slave labor
        3. Social hierarchy of slave society
      3. Slavery in the North
        1. Breadth and importance of slavery
        2. Forms of slave labor
    5. Slave culture and resistance
      1. Becoming African-American
      2. Regional patterns of African-American culture
        1. In the Chesapeake
        2. In South Carolina and Georgia
          1. On the rice plantations
          2. In the port towns
        3. In the northern colonies
      3. Resistance to slavery
        1. Running away
        2. Collective rebellion
          1. New York City uprising of 1712
          2. Uprisings around Caribbean and Gulf coast of 1730s and 1740s
          3. Stono Rebellion of 1739
          4. New York City plot of 1741
  2. An Empire of Freedom
    1. British patriotism at home and in the colonies
    2. Sources
      1. Common culture and institutions
      2. Military power
      3. Expanding commercial economy
      4. Concept of British liberty
  3. The British Constitution; British Ideals of Liberty
    1. Elements of
      1. "Rights of Englishmen"
      2. "Balanced Constitution"
      3. Protestantism
      4. As distinctively British
    2. Language of liberty
      1. Expanding currency in Britain and colonial America
      2. From class-based privilege to general rights
      3. As emerging battle cry for the rebellious
    3. Republican liberty ("republicanism")
      1. Principles
        1. Supreme value of public service
        2. Property as key to independence and public virtue
      2. Appeal to landed elites of Britain and America
    4. Liberal freedom ("liberalism")
      1. Principles (derived from John Locke's "social contract")
        1. Natural, universal rights of the individual
        2. Consent of the governed
        3. Rule of law
        4. Government as protector of life, liberty, property
        5. Right of rebellion
      2. Relation to social order
        1. Compatibility with material inequality
        2. Inspiration for challenges by excluded groups
    5. Overlaps between republicanism and liberalism
  4. The Public Sphere in Eighteenth-Century Colonial America
    1. Extent and limits of democracy
      1. The right to vote
        1. High levels of white male suffrage
        2. Exclusions on the basis of sex, religion, race, wealth
      2. Uneven competitiveness of elections
      3. Appointive vs. elective office
      4. Powers of governors or crown
        1. To appoint officials
        2. To veto colonial legislation
      5. The right to hold office
      6. Traditions of class deference
    2. Influence of colonial elites in local governance
      1. British policy of "salutary neglect"
      2. Growing assertiveness of colonial assemblies
      3. Issues between elected assemblies and crown-appointed officials
    3. Expanding realm of public debate
      1. Clubs
      2. Taverns and coffee houses
      3. Pamphlets and broadsides
      4. Books, circulating libraries
      5. Newspapers
    4. Freedom of expression
      1. Absence from traditional English rights
      2. Growing point of conflict between press and assemblies
      3. Trial of John Peter Zenger
    5. American Enlightenment
      1. Principles of Enlightenment
      2. Benjamin Franklin as embodiment of American Enlightenment
      3. Arminianism and Deism
  5. The Great Awakening
    1. Religious revivals
      1. Precursors: Theodore Frelinghuysen, William and Gilbert Tennent, Jonathan Edwards
      2. George Whitefield
    2. Driving concerns
      1. Diminished religious devotion
      2. Rising commercialism
    3. Styles and themes
      1. Emotional, personal style of Christianity
      2. Evangelical preaching
      3. Power of individuals over their own salvation or damnation
    4. The Awakening's impacts
      1. Congregational splits into Old Light and New Light factions
      2. Proliferation of new churches
      3. Broadening of debate over established churches and religious freedom
      4. Reassessment of power relations and central values in America
  6. Imperial Rivalries
    1. Spanish and French empires in North America
      1. Breadth of territory, sparseness of settlement
      2. Impulses to reinvigorate
    2. The Spanish North America
      1. Meager settlements in New Mexico, Texas, and Florida
      2. California
        1. Spread of missions and presidios
        2. Relations with Indians
          1. Conversion to Christianity
          2. Transformation from hunters and gatherers to farmers and craftsmen
          3. Exploitation of forced labor
          4. Consequences for Indian society
    3. The French empire
      1. Expansion of French traders into Mississippi Valley
        1. From Great Lakes
        2. From Mobile and New Orleans
      2. Farming communities in French Canada
      3. Louisiana
        1. Sugar plantations
        2. New Orleans
    4. Forts and trading posts along western frontier of British colonies
  7. Battle for the Continent
    1. Background
      1. Multi-sided contests for power in Ohio Valley ("middle ground")
        1. France
        2. England
        3. Rival Indian communities
        4. Settlers
        5. Land companies
      2. Ohio Company land claims
    2. The Seven Years' War (a.k.a. The French and Indian War)
      1. Outbreak
      2. Initial French and Indian successes
      3. Turning of tide by British forces; surrender of New France outposts
      4. 1763 Peace of Paris
    3. A world transformed; the war's repercussions
      1. Changed international balance of power
        1. Ouster of French empire from North America
        2. Global reshuffling of imperial alliances and possessions
      2. For financial situations of Britain, France
      3. For relations between Indians and colonies
        1. Loss of diplomatic middle path for frontier Indians
        2. Development of pan-Indian identity
        3. Pontiac's rebellion
        4. Proclamation of 1763 and the "Proclamation line"
        5. Rise of anti-Indian hostility from frontier colonists
          1. Resignation of Quakers from Pennsylvania assembly
          2. Paxton Boys
      4. For colonial identities
        1. Stronger bonds among the colonies
        2. Stronger bond to British empire